High-performance inverted solar cells using various low-bandgap polymers are achieved by using excellent metal oxide nanoparticles including ZnO and TiO2:Cs nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer (ETL). Power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 7.3% are achieved with inverted single cells based on PTB7:PC71BM. The results give a guideline for high-efficiency and stable inverted single-junction and tandem polymer solar cells.
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