Extremely Efficient Indium–Tin-Oxide-Free Green Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes



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This paper demonstrates extremely efficient (ηP,max = 118 lm W−1) ITO-free green phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs) with multilayered, highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films as the anode. The efficiency is obtained without any outcoupling-enhancing structures and is 44% higher than the 82 lm W−1 of similar optimized ITO-anode PHOLEDs. Detailed simulations show that this improvement is due largely to the intrinsically enhanced outcoupling that results from a weak microcavity effect.