Amorphous Carbon under 80 kV Electron Irradiation: A Means to Make or Break Graphene



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Amorphous carbon irradiated by electrons at acceleration voltages of 80 kV is studied in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Amorphous carbon deposited on graphene or h-BN membranes forms graphene layers parallel to the support due to van der Waals interactions. One can use deposited amorphous carbon to engineer graphene either for its catalyst-free fabrication or its destruction.