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Keywords:

  • self-organization;
  • nanocrystalline metal;
  • 3D assembly;
  • reactive ion etching;
  • focused ion beam
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Ion processing of the reactive surface of a free-standing polycrystalline metal film induces a flow of atoms into grain boundaries, resulting in plastic deformation. A thorough experimental and theoretical analysis of this process is presented, along with the demonstration of novel engineering concepts for precisely controlled 3D assembly at micro- and nanoscopic scales.