Here we summarize recent progress in the development of electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) for organic and printed electronics. EGTs employ a high capacitance electrolyte as the gate insulator; the high capacitance increases drive current, lowers operating voltages, and enables new transistor architectures. Although the use of electrolytes in electronics is an old concept going back to the early days of the silicon transistor, new printable, fast-response polymer electrolytes are expanding the potential applications of EGTs in flexible, printed digital circuits, rollable displays, and conformal bioelectronic sensors. This report introduces the structure and operation mechanisms of EGTs and reviews key developments in electrolyte materials for use in printed electronics. The bulk of the article is devoted to electrical characterization of EGTs and emerging applications.