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Keywords:

  • bistable electroactive polymers;
  • interpenetrating polymer networks;
  • polymer swelling;
  • actuation;
  • Braille display
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The bistable electroactive polymer is a new smart material capable of large strain, rigid-to-rigid actuation. At the rubbery state of the polymer heated to above its glass transition, stable electrically-induced actuation is obtained at strains as large as 150%. Electromechanical instability can be effectively overcome by the formation of interpenetrating polymer networks. An application as a refreshable braille display is demonstrated.