Optical Design of Transparent Thin Metal Electrodes to Enhance In-Coupling and Trapping of Light in Flexible Polymer Solar Cells



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ITO-free polymer solar cells with efficiencies as high as 6.6% and 5.8% are fabricated on glass and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) by using TeO2 to enhance the in-coupling of light in an Ag–Ag microcavity. These cells exhibit higher performance, selective microcavity resonance as a function of the thickness of TeO2, and better bending stability than flexible devices made with ITO.