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Nano-Newton Transverse Force Sensor Using a Vertical GaN Nanowire based on the Piezotronic Effect



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Enhanced transverse force sensitivity of vertically aligned GaN nanowires is demonstrated using the piezotronic effect. The transverse force sensitivity is calculated to be 1.24 ± 0.13 ln(A)/nN, with a resolution better than 16 nN and the response time less than 5 ms. The nano-Newton force resolution shows the potential for piezoelectric semiconductor materials to be used as the main building block for micro-/nanosensor arrays or artificial skin.