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An Indium-Free Low Work Function Window Electrode for Organic Photovoltaics Which Improves with In-Situ Oxidation

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Abstract

A low-cost window electrode for organic photovoltaics that simultaneously removes the requirement for conducting oxide and conventional low work function electrodes and functions as a sink for oxygen/water in the heart of the device. Remarkably the functionality of this electrode, which is based on a 7.8 nm nanostructured Cu:Al film, improves upon in situ oxidation as demonstrated in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics.

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