Prospects and Challenges of Graphene in Biomedical Applications

Authors

  • Dimitrios Bitounis,

    1. Nanomedicine Laboratory, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
    Current affiliation:
    1. D.B and H.A-B contributed equally to this work.
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  • Hanene Ali-Boucetta,

    1. Nanomedicine Laboratory, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
    2. Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Therapeutics Section, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK
    Current affiliation:
    1. D.B and H.A-B contributed equally to this work.
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  • Byung Hee Hong,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea
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  • Dal-Hee Min,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea
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  • Kostas Kostarelos

    Corresponding author
    1. Nanomedicine Laboratory, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK
    • Nanomedicine Laboratory, Centre for Drug Delivery Research, UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK.
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  • Dedicated to Professor Maurizio Prato on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

Abstract

Graphene materials have entered a phase of maturity in their development that is characterized by their explorative utilization in various types of applications and fields from electronics to biomedicine. Herein, we describe the recent advances made with graphene-related materials in the biomedical field and the challenges facing these exciting new tools both in terms of biological activity and toxicological profiling in vitro and in vivo. Graphene materials today have mainly been explored as components of biosensors and for construction of matrices in tissue engineering. Their antimicrobial activity and their capacity to act as drug delivery platforms have also been reported, however, not as coherently. This report will attempt to offer some perspective as to which areas of biomedical applications can expect graphene-related materials to constitute a tool offering improved functionality and previously unavailable options.

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