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Ion-Irradiation-Induced Defects in Isotopically-Labeled Two Layered Graphene: Enhanced In-Situ Annealing of the Damage

Authors

  • Martin Kalbac,

    Corresponding author
    1. J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejškova 3, CZ-18223 Prague 8, Czech Republic
    • J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Dolejškova 3, CZ-18223 Prague 8, Czech Republic.
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  • Ossi Lehtinen,

    1. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki
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  • Arkady V. Krasheninnikov,

    1. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki
    2. Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
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  • Juhani Keinonen

    1. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki
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Abstract

Contrary to theoretical estimates based on the conventional binary collision model, experimental results indicate that the number of defects in the lower layer of the bi-layer graphene sample is smaller than in the upper layer. This observation is explained by in situ self-annealing of the defects.

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