Multilevel operation in resistive switching memory (RRAM) based on HfOx is demonstrated through variable sizes and orientations of the conductive filament. Memory states with the same resistance, but opposite orientation of defects, display a different response to an applied read voltage, therefore allowing an improvement of the information stored in each physical cell. The multilevel scheme allows a 50% increase (from 2 to 3 bits) of the stored information.
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