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Advanced Materials

Electronically Programmable, Reversible Shape Change in Two- and Three-Dimensional Hydrogel Structures

Authors

  • Cunjiang Yu,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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  • Zheng Duan,

    1. School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
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  • Peixi Yuan,

    1. Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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  • Yuhang Li,

    1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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  • Yewang Su,

    1. Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China
    2. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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  • Xun Zhang,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
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  • Yuping Pan,

    1. School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
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  • Lenore L. Dai,

    1. School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
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  • Ralph G. Nuzzo,

    1. Department of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
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  • Yonggang Huang,

    1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
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  • Hanqing Jiang,

    Corresponding author
    1. School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    • School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
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  • John A. Rogers

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemistry, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials, Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    • Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemistry, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology and Frederick Seitz Materials, Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
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Abstract

Combining compliant electrode arrays in open-mesh constructs with hydrogels yields a class of soft actuator, capable of complex, programmable changes in shape. The results include materials strategies, integration approaches, and mechanical/thermal analysis of heater meshes embedded in thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogels with forms ranging from 2D sheets to 3D hemispherical shells.

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