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An Electrically Reversible Switchable Surface to Control and Study Early Bacterial Adhesion Dynamics in Real-Time



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Bacterial adhesion can be controlled by applying electrical potentials to surfaces incorporating well-spaced negatively charged 11-mercaptoundecanoic acids. When combined with electrochemical surface plasmon resonance, these dynamic surfaces become powerful for monitoring and analysing the passage between reversible and non-reversible cell adhesion, opening new opportunities to advance our understanding of cell adhesion processes.