Doping of Fullerenes via Anion-Induced Electron Transfer and Its Implication for Surfactant Facilitated High Performance Polymer Solar Cells



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Simple and solution-processible tetrabutyl-ammonium salts (TBAX) can dope fullerene and its derivatives to achieve conductive thin films (σ as high as 0.56 S/m). The electron transfer between the anions of TBAXs and n-type semiconductors induces doping without encountering any harsh activation. These provide valid support for the surfactant interfacial doping of fullerene in polymer solar cells for enhanced device performance.