Fullerenol, which self-assembles into virus-sized nanoparticles, is designed as a dual-functional nanoadjuvant to generate comparable immune responses to the HIV DNA vaccine. It shows promising adjuvant activity via various immunization routes, decreasing the antigen dosage and immunization frequency while maintaining immunity levels and inducing TEM-biased immunity to combat the infection at early stage. The underlying mechanisms by which fullerenol-based formulation induces above-mentioned polyvalent immune responses are involved in activating multiple TLRs signaling pathways.
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