In order to make polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fluidic, acrylonitrile telomer (ANT) is synthesized by radical telomerization and used as a nitrogen and carbon precursor to prepare a non-noble oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. This fluidic precursor greatly increases the contact between Fe salt aggregates and the polymer so that more active sites are formed during stabilization and carbonization. Such prepared catalysts and the commercial Pt/C catalyst have comparable ORR performance and stability.
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