This review is intended to reflect the recent progress on therapeutic applications of nanomaterials in amyloid diseases. The progress on anti-amyloid functions of various nanomaterials including inorganic nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials and biomolecular aggregates, is reviewed and discussed. The main functionalization strategies for general nanoparticle modifications are reviewed for potential applications of targeted therapeutics. The interaction mechanisms between amyloid peptides and nanomaterials are discussed from the perspectives of dominant interactions and kinetics. The encapsulation of anti-amyloid drugs, targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release and drug delivery crossing blood brain barrier by application of nanomaterials would also improve the therapeutics of amyloid diseases.