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Nanomaterials for Ultrasensitive Protein Detection

Authors

  • Yi Zhang,

    1. CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, P. R. China
    2. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P. R. China
    Current affiliation:
    1. These authors contributed equally to this work.
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  • Yongming Guo,

    1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China
    2. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P. R. China
    Current affiliation:
    1. These authors contributed equally to this work.
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  • Yunlei Xianyu,

    1. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P. R. China
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  • Wenwen Chen,

    1. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P. R. China
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  • Yuyun Zhao,

    1. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P. R. China
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  • Xingyu Jiang

    Corresponding author
    1. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P. R. China
    • CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.
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  • Dedicated to the 10-year anniversary of the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, China

Abstract

The advances of nanomaterials have provided exciting technologies and novel materials for protein detection, based on the unique properties associated with nanoscale phenomena such as plasmon resonance, catalysis and energy transfer. This article reviews a series of nanomaterials including nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanowires, and nanosheets, and evaluates their performances in the application for protein detection, focusing on approaches that realize ultrasensitive detection. Many of these nanomaterials were used to analyze clinically relevant protein biomarkers. Their detection in the picomolar, femtomolar or even zeptomolar regime has been realized, sometimes even with naked-eye readout. We summarize the detection methods and results according to materials and targets, review the current challenges, and discuss the solution in the context of technological integration such as combining nanomaterials with microfluidics, and classical analytical technologies.

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