The Field-Gradient Effect extends the photofluidization of azobenzene materials to 3D, multi-level micro/nanotexturing with a newly conceptualized design strategy based on “field-gradient photofluidization”. In particular, we successfully characterized the vertical gradient optical absorption within the azobenzene material and the resulting field-gradient photofluidization both theoretically and experimentally. Furthermore, we could create the heterogeneously integrated micro/nanotextures at any desired surface heights, capability that is potentially beneficial for plasmonic applications.
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