An electrogenetic layered graphene hydrogel membrane (GHM) possesses ultra-large interlayer spacing of about 10 nm, forming charged 2D nanocapillaries between graphene sheets that selectively permeate counter-ions and exclude co-ions. When an electrolyte flow goes through the GHM, it functions as an integrated 2D nanofluidic generator converting hydraulic motion into electricity. The maximum streaming conductance density approaches 16.8 μA cm−2 bar−1.
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