Conjugated polymeric zwitterions, when utilized as interlayer materials in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, lead to significantly enhanced power conversion efficiencies. The electrostatic model of self-aligning dipolar side groups in the vicinity of the metal surface rationalizes the effects of reduced cathode work function, a key factor behind the observed enhanced efficiency.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.