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A Direct Evidence of Morphological Degradation on a Nanometer Scale in Polymer Solar Cells




In situ measurement of a polymer solar cell using micro grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS) and current–voltage tracking is demonstrated. While measuring electric characteristics under illumination, morphological changes are probed by μGISAXS. The X-ray beam (green) impinges on the photo active layer with a shallow angle and scatters on a 2d detector. Degradation is explained by the ongoing nanomorphological changes observed.