The exterior surface of nanoparticles (NPs) dictates the behavior of these systems with the outside world. Understanding the interactions of the NP surface functionality with biosystems enables the design and fabrication of effective platforms for therapeutics, diagnostics, and imaging agents. In this review, we highlight the role of chemistry in the engineering of nanomaterials, focusing on the fundamental role played by surface chemistry in controlling the interaction of NPs with proteins and cells.
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