25th Anniversary Article: Exploring Nanoscaled Matter from Speciation to Phase Diagrams: Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles as a Case of Study

Authors

  • Sophie Carenco,

    1. UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France, Paris Cedex 05, France
    2. CNRS, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
    3. Collège de France, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
    4. Laboratoire Hétéroéléments et Coordination, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France
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    • [+]Present address: Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron, Road, Berkeley 94720, California, USA

  • David Portehault,

    1. UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France, Paris Cedex 05, France
    2. CNRS, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
    3. Collège de France, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
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  • Cédric Boissière,

    1. UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France, Paris Cedex 05, France
    2. CNRS, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
    3. Collège de France, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
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  • Nicolas Mézailles,

    1. Université Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire Hétérochimie Fondamentale et Appliquée, UMR CNRS 5069, Toulouse Cedex 9, France
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  • Clément Sanchez

    Corresponding author
    1. UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France, Paris Cedex 05, France
    2. CNRS, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
    3. Collège de France, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Paris Cedex 05, France
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Abstract

The notions of nanoscale “phase speciation” and “phase diagram” are defined and discussed in terms of kinetic and thermodynamic controls, based on the case of metal phosphide nanoparticles. After an overview of the most successful synthetic routes for these exotic nanomaterials, the cases of InP, Ni2P, Ni12P5 and PdxPy are discussed in detail to highlight the relationship between composition, structure, and size at the nanoscale. The influence of morphology is discussed next by comparing the behavior of Cu3P nanophases with those of NixPy, FeP/Fe2P, and CoP/Co2P. Perspectives provide the reader with methodological guidelines for further investigation of nanoscale “phase diagrams”, and their use for optimized synthesis of new functional nanomaterials.

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