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Keywords:

  • ferroelectric;
  • LiNbO3;
  • surface charge;
  • potential mapping;
  • KPFM
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Mapping surface potential with time-resolved Kelvin probe force microscopy (tr-KPFM) in LiNbO3 periodically poled single crystals reveals activation of the surface ionic subsystem. Electric fields of certain strength induce injection of charge, formation of an active region in its vicinity and uneven distribution of screening charge on the opposite ferroelectric domains. Tr-KPFM technique allows investigating these phenomena in details.