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Keywords:

  • fluorination;
  • molecular energy levels;
  • polymer solar cells;
  • conjugated polymers
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation is realized by introducing fluorine atoms onto both the donor and the acceptor moieties in a D–A polymer, and as a result, the polymer solar cell device based on the trifluorinated polymer, PBT-3F, shows a high efficiency of 8.6%, under illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm2.