Organic vapor-phase deposition (OVPD) is used to grow tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthen (DBP):C70 mixed heterojunction photovoltaic devices. Compared with vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE), the OVPD-grown film develops nanocrystalline domains of C70. Optimized OVPD-grown OPVs have a 61% fill factor for a 100 nm active layer thickness, whereas VTE-grown devices have a 47% fill factor at the same thickness.
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