Universal Formation of Compositionally Graded Bulk Heterojunction for Efficiency Enhancement in Organic Photovoltaics

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Abstract

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A universal method is reported to form graded bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) by a simple solvent-fluxing process. Donors are enriched at the anode and acceptors are enriched at cathode side, matching the gradient electron and hole current across the film. Efficiency enhancements by 15–50% are achieved for all BHJ systems tested compared with the optimized regular BHJ OPVs.

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