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Three-Dimensional Nanofabrication by Block Copolymer Self-Assembly



Thin films of block copolymers are widely seen as enablers for nanoscale fabrication of semiconductor devices, membranes, and other structures, taking advantage of microphase separation to produce well-organized nanostructures with periods of a few nm and above. However, the inherently three-dimensional structure of block copolymer microdomains could enable them to make 3D devices and structures directly, which could lead to efficient fabrication of complex heterogeneous structures. This article reviews recent progress in developing 3D nanofabrication processes based on block copolymers.