Lead-Free Inverted Planar Formamidinium Tin Triiodide Perovskite Solar Cells Achieving Power Conversion Efficiencies up to 6.22%

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Abstract

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Efficient lead (Pb)-free inverted planar formamidinium tin triiodide (FASnI3) perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) are demonstrated. Our FASnI3 PVSCs achieved average power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.41% ± 0.46% and a maximum PCE of 6.22% under forward voltage scan. The PVSCs exhibit small photocurrent–voltage hysteresis and high reproducibility. The champion cell shows a steady-state efficiency of ≈6.00% for over 100 s.

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