D. Cahen and A. Kahn
Basic notions related to the electron energetics of solid surfaces and interfaces are discussed. Use of molecules for and in electronics requires knowledge of how the electronic energy levels of the molecules match and change those of the other components they are combined with. This didactic review, which also describes standard techniques used to measure such quantities, pulls together the different views and terminologies used in the solid state, surface science, electrochemistry, and electronic device communities. In this way one can then put key concepts, such as the so-called local and absolute vacuum levels, as well as work function, electron affinity, and ionization energy, and including surface dipole effects, on a common scale.