Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

July, 2004

Volume 16, Issue 13

Pages 1035–1138

    1. New Functional Polymers and Materials Based on 2,2′:6′,2″-Terpyridine Metal Complexes (pages 1043–1068)

      P. R. Andres and U. S. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306518

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      2,2′:6′,2″-Terpyridine–metal complexes are of increasing interest in polymer systems and surface patterning. Combining conventional polymers with such complexes leads to new phenomena in material properties. Bis-terpyridine–metal(II) complexes are also important in basic research concerning light to energy conversion systems, for electrocatalysis, and are of interest for self-assembly purposes (see Figure).

    2. Biomimetic Coating of Laminin–Apatite Composite on Titanium Metal and Its Excellent Cell-Adhesive Properties (pages 1071–1074)

      M. Uchida, A. Oyane, H.-M. Kim, T. Kokubo and A. Ito

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400152

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      A laminin–apatite composite layer (see Figure) with superior cell-adhesion properties that has been formed on the surface of titanium metal without denaturation of the laminin is reported. Application of the composite to titanium materials is expected to prevent bacterial infection, and it is therefore believed that this material could be useful for percutaneous implants, such as artificial tooth roots or skin terminals.

    3. Controlled Structure and Properties of Thermoresponsive Nanoparticle–Hydrogel Composites (pages 1074–1079)

      C. Wang, N. T. Flynn and R. Langer

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306516

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      Nanocomposite hydrogels consisting of colloidal gold nanoparticles and thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers (see Figure) are synthesized. The size, morphology, and stability of the nanoparticles are controlled by the amount of thiol group in the polymer side chains. Compared with non-Au-containing hydrogels, remarkably different bulk properties of equilibrium swelling and thermoresponsive phase transition are displayed.

    4. A Novel and Simple In-Situ Reduction Route for the Synthesis of an Ultra-Thin Metal Nanocoating in the Channels of Mesoporous Silica Materials (pages 1079–1082)

      L. Li, J.-L. Shi, L.-X. Zhang, L.-M. Xiong and J.-N. Yan

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306454

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      The synthesis and characterization of an ultra-thin palladium nanocoating in the channels of a mesoporous silica material, designated as Pd-SBA, is described. In the preparation of this new material, Si–H functional groups were introduced directly into the channel of an SBA-15 mesoporous material, eventually resulting in a highly dispersed ultra-thin nanocoating on the pore walls of the supporting material.

    5. Formation of Europium Chelate Complexes by Vacuum Co-Deposition and Their Application in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1082–1086)

      T. Oyamada, Y. Kawamura, T. Koyama, H. Sasabe and C. Adachi

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400090

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      A unique method of material synthesis based on vacuum co-deposition is reported. A Eu complex was formed by co-deposition of bis(dipivaloymethanato)europium (Eu(DPM)3) and 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), which both showed excellent volatility during vacuum deposition. Photoexcitation of the BCP led to intense emission from the Eu3+ ions, verifying efficient exciton energy transfer and therefore complex formation.

    6. Stamps for Submicrometer Soft Lithography Fabricated by Capillary Force Lithography (pages 1086–1090)

      C. M. Bruinink, M. Péter, M. de Boer, L. Kuipers, J. Huskens and D. N. Reinhoudt

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306523

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      A convenient, inexpensive technique for fabrication of stamps for submicrometer soft lithography from masters with micrometer-size features is presented. Templates fabricated by capillary-force lithography are robust against replica molding of stamps. The Figure shows the resulting metal structure after employing such a second-generation stamp in microcontact printing of octadecanethiol and subsequent wet chemical etching of the underlying gold.

    7. Three-Dimensional Network Photonic Crystals via Cyclic Size Reduction/ Infiltration of Sea Urchin Exoskeleton (pages 1091–1094)

      Y.-H. Ha, R. A. Vaia, W. F. Lynn, J. P. Costantino, J. Shin, A. B. Smith, P. T. Matsudaira and E. L. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 3 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400131

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      A reduction and infiltration process for a naturally occurring 3D bicontinuous structure is demonstrated. A sea urchin exoskeleton can be engineered in a top–down fashion to create low absorption, high dielectric contrast photonic crystals with a stop band in the mid-IR regime. The Figure shows a sample cut in half where one half (right) has been pyrolyzed, demonstrating the excellent structural fidelity of the replication-reduction process.

    8. Mesoporous and Homothetic Silica Capsules in Reverse-Emulsion Microreactors (pages 1094–1097)

      G. Fornasieri, S. Badaire, R. Backov, O. Mondain-Monval, C. Zakri and P. Poulin

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306229

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      A process to synthesize silica mesoporous capsules is reported (see Figure), where mineralization takes place at the oil–water interface of reverse emulsion droplets. The capsules exhibit an homothetic morphology. Simple scaling analysis reveals that mineralization takes place above a well-defined hydrolyzed precursor concentration within the droplets.

    9. Field-Dependent Growth Patterns of Metals Electroplated in Nanoporous Alumina Membranes (pages 1097–1101)

      W.-C. Yoo and J.-K. Lee

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306595

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      Novel core–shell cable structures (see Figure) of metal alloys are described as one application of field-controlled electroplating of metals in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. At high current density (∼ 20–300 mA/cm2), the electroplating process occurs relatively fast through the surface of the AAO channels to form nanotubes. A second metal is then electroplated at low current density, forming cores inside.

    10. Resonant Quantum Tunneling in a New Tetranuclear Iron(III)-Based Single-Molecule Magnet (pages 1101–1105)

      M. Moragues-Cánovas, É. Rivière, L. Ricard, C. Paulsen, W. Wernsdorfer, G. Rajaraman, E. K. Brechin and T. Mallah

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306479

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      Complexing deprotonated trihydromethylethane with iron(III) leads to the formation of a tetranuclear iron cluster (see Figure) with a S = 5 spin ground state and a appreciable magnetic anisotropy. Low-temperature investigations demonstrate single molecule magnet behavior and resonant tunneling within the ground state.

    11. Synthesis of SiCNO Nanowires Through Heat-Treatment of Polymer-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1106–1109)

      R.-G. Duan and A. K. Mukherjee

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306564

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      SiCNO nanowires (see Figure) have been successfully synthesized by heat-treatment of polymer-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The tangled networks of SWNT ropes associate tightly and uniformly with the polymer precursor, most likely via chemical bonds between the polymer and the SWNT surface. The SWNTs act as a template to confine the reaction with the polymer in the synthesis of the nanowires.

    12. Fabrication of Ag2SiO3/SiO2 Composite Nanotubes Using a One-Step Sacrificial Templating Solution Approach (pages 1109–1112)

      X. Cui, S.-H. Yu, L. Li, K. Li and B. Yu

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400081

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      A facile one-step sacrificial templating solution route for the large-scale synthesis of a new kind of long Ag2SiO3/SiO2 composite nanotube has been achieved using silver molybdate nanowires (see Figure, left) as a sacrificial template at ambient temperature. In-situ embedding of Ag2SiO3 nanoparticles on the backbone (see Figure, right) is demonstrated, and seems a promising strategy in order to endow the silica nanotubes with new properties.

    13. High-Performance All-Polymer Transistor Utilizing a Hygroscopic Insulator (pages 1112–1115)

      H. G. O. Sandberg, T. G. Bäcklund, R. Österbacka and H. Stubb

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400030

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      An organic transistor is presented, showing a one-hundred-fold increase in current level at operating voltages around 1 V and excellent current modulation (see Figure) resulting from the ionic effects present in the hygroscopic insulator when operated in ambient atmosphere.

    14. Morphology Control and Transferability of Ordered Through-Pore Arrays Based on the Electrodeposition of a Colloidal Monolayer (pages 1116–1121)

      F. Sun, W. P. Cai, Y. Li, B. Cao, F. Lu, G. Duan and L. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400006

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      A colloidal-monolayer template- directed electrodeposition strategy for producing morphology-controlled ordered pore arrays with one pore thickness, is reported (see Figure). Film morphology is controlled by heating the colloidal monolayer before deposition, and electrodeposition time. Deposited films can be integrally transferred to any insulating substrate, even those with curved surfaces.

    15. Nanoparticle-Assisted Growth of Porous Germanium Thin Films (pages 1121–1124)

      J. Shieh, H. L. Chen, T. S. Ko, H. C. Cheng and T. C. Chu

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306541

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      Porous Ge thin films (see Figure) have been prepared using low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition. Au nanoparticles are used as catalysts to initiate the protrusion of Ge nanotips from the surface of the substrate. After removing the catalysts during growth, the Ge nanotips coalesce together to develop the porous structure.

    16. Morphosynthesis of Molecular Magnetic Materials (pages 1125–1129)

      E. Dujardin and S. Mann

      Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400166

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      Although molecule-based materials can combine physical and chemical properties associated with molecular-scale building blocks, their integration into real applications depends also on higher-order properties, such as crystal size, shape, and organization. New approaches involving templating and self- or facilitated assembly of nanoscale building blocks to prepare novel multifunctional molecular magnetic materials are described.

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