Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

August, 2004

Volume 16, Issue 16

Pages 1383–1478

    1. Opaline Photonic Crystals: How Does Self-Assembly Work? (pages 1393–1399)

      D. J. Norris, E. G. Arlinghaus, L. Meng, R. Heiny and L. E. Scriven

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400455

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      Thin opaline films (see Figure), which are self-assembled from colloidal microspheres, have recently been used to explore the properties of photonic crystals. However, the detailed growth mechanism of these opals is not known. Here the underlying issues involved in the growth are discussed, and it is suggested that solvent flow, which to date has not been seriously considered, could play a critical role in controlling the formation process.

    2. A Novel Photodefinable Reactive Polymer Coating and Its Use for Microfabrication of Hydrogel Elements (pages 1401–1405)

      K. Y. Suh, R. Langer and J. Lahann

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400101

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      A novel photodefinable polymer reactive coating formed using chemical vapor deposition polymerization is reported. Its potential as a convenient and flexible interface for confinement of hydrogels (see Figure), as is often required in microfabrication processes, is demonstrated. The concept combines the advantages of a vapor-deposited polymer (form fidelity, stability, flexibility) with the ability to conduct photochemical immobilization chemistry.

    3. Epitaxy on Diamond by Chemical Vapor Deposition: A Route to High-Quality Cubic Boron Nitride for Electronic Applications (pages 1405–1408)

      W. Zhang, I. Bello, Y. Lifshitz, K. M. Chan, X. Meng, Y. Wu, C. Y. Chan and S.-T. Lee

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306658

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      Heteroepitaxial growth of cubic boron nitride (cBN) on diamond using fluorine-assisted chemical vapor deposition is reported. Since cBN grown on diamond shows extraordinary film adhesion and stability, diamond serves as a universal intermediate layer for growing cBN films on a host of materials. The Figure illustrates the heteroepitaxial relationship between the interfacing materials, i.e, cBN–diamond and diamond–silicon.

    4. Second Harmonic Generation from Coupled Surface-Plasmon Resonances in Self-Assembled Gold-Nanoparticle Monolayers Coated with an Aminosilane (pages 1408–1412)

      T. Hayakawa, Y. Usui, S. Bharathi and M. Nogami

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306463

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      A uniform, monolayer-thick array of Au nanoparticles are produced on an aminopropylthrimethoxysilane-modified glass substrate by simple immersion of the substrate in the sol for 1 h (see AFM image, Figure). Longer immersion causes the nanoparticles to form colloidal domain structures, which induce a second-order polarization of light.

    5. A New Mesoporous Manganese Oxide Pillared with Double Layers of Alumina (pages 1412–1416)

      L. Z. Wang, Y. Ebina, K. Takada, K. Kurashima and T. Sasaki

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306562

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      The flocculation of colloidal nanosheets of MnO2 with Al13 Keggin ions produces a novel pillared structure with a double-layer arrangement of Al13 species, which exhibits a large intersheet spacing of 2.3 nm and a well-defined mesoporosity. The Figure shows a schematic representation of the formation process.

    6. Spontaneous Resolution of Racemic Hydrogen-Bonded Nanoassemblies on Graphite Revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy (pages 1416–1420)

      H. Schönherr, M. Crego-Calama, G. J. Vancso and D. N. Reinhoudt

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306604

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      An atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation into the spontaneous resolution of a P/M racemic mixture of helical self-assembled tetrarosettes 13·(DEB)12 (see Figure) into enantiopure domains in 2D supramolecular assemblies on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is reported. These results represent the first reported case of spontaneous resolution of a racemate of chiral nanostructures.

    7. Preferential Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles Inside Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns (pages 1420–1423)

      R. Yuge, T. Ichihashi, Y. Shimakawa, Y. Kubo, M. Yudasaka and S. Iijima

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400130

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      Pt nanoparticles are incorporated in the three-dimensional nanospace inside single-walled carbon nanohorns using a simple colloidal preparation method. The Pt particles are preferentially deposited inside nanohorns and are located near the defects (see Figure).

    8. Chemically Modified Calcium Phosphates as Novel Materials for Bisphosphonate Delivery (pages 1423–1427)

      S. Josse, C. Faucheux, A. Soueidan, G. Grimandi, D. Massiot, B. Alonso, P. Janvier, S. Laïb, O. Gauthier, G. Daculsi, J. Guicheux, B. Bujoli and J.-M. Bouler

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306340

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      A potent inhibitor for bone resorption, the gem-bisphosphonate zoledronate, has been chemically associated with calcium-deficient apatites. The ability of such materials to release the zoledronate, resulting in the inhibition of osteoclastic resorption, is demonstrated using a specific in-vitro bone resorption model. The resorption activity is typically characterized by the formation of lacunae on the surface of dentin slices (see Figure).

    9. Directed Self-Assembly of Silica Nanoparticles into Nanometer-Scale Patterned Surfaces Using Spin-Coating (pages 1427–1432)

      D. Xia, A. Biswas, D. Li and S. R. J. Brueck

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400095

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      Directed self-assembly of silica nanoparticles into 1D grooves (see Figure) and 2D holes has been demonstrated. Large-area nanometer-scale-patterned surfaces were defined utilizing interferometric lithography. The particle dimensions and the nanopatterned structures were as small as 50 nm. The final particle distribution depends on the pattern dimensions and symmetry as well as on spin speed, pH of the colloidal suspension, and particle size.

    10. Ordered, Nanostructured Tin-Based Oxides/Carbon Composite as the Negative-Electrode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 1432–1436)

      J. Fan, T. Wang, C. Yu, B. Tu, Z. Jiang and D. Zhao

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400106

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      An ordered, nanostructured, tin-based oxides/carbon composite prepared by the full deposition of tin-based oxides into 3D nanospaces of mesoporous carbon is described. These novel nanostructured hybrid composites (see Figure) demonstrate a much better cycle performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries than nanosized tin-based oxides when cycled in a wide voltage range (0.02–2.0 V).

    11. Size-Dependent Periodically Twinned ZnSe Nanowires (pages 1436–1440)

      Q. Li, X. Gong, C. Wang, J. Wang, K. Ip and S. Hark

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306648

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      Cubic ZnSe nanowires with periodically alternating twins along the wire growth direction (see Figure) have been synthesized using thermal evaporation with a Au catalyst. The periodicity of the alternating twins has a linear dependence on the diameter of the nanowires. Sharp excitonic peaks dominating the low-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the nanowires reveal the high quality of their electronic structure despite the large unpassivated surface and interface associated with the twinned nanowire configuration.

    12. Enzymatic Formation of Supramolecular Hydrogels (pages 1440–1444)

      Z. Yang, H. Gu, D. Fu, P. Gao, J. K. Lam and B. Xu

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400340

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      The enzymatic formation of supramolecular hydrogels is reported. A dephosphorylation enzymatic reaction (see Figure) triggers the self-assembly of N-(fluorenyl-methoxycarbonyl) tyrosine and results in hydrogelation at physiological temperatures. This enzymatic gelation process offers opportunities for in-situ generation of hydrogels in tissues and demonstrates potential for biomedical applications of supramolecular hydrogels.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Enzymatic Formation of Supramolecular Hydrogels

      Vol. 18, Issue 5, 545, Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2006

    13. Fabrication and Optical Properties of Erbium-Doped Germanium Nanowires (pages 1444–1448)

      J. Wu, P. Punchaipetch, R. M. Wallace and J. L. Coffer

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400162

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      A new simple vapor-phase route to germanium nanowires (see Figure) has been developed that relies on a combination of germanium plus carbon in the original reactant source. A layer of erbium ions grown along the surface of these nanowires produces a core–shell structure that emits in the near-infrared range.

    14. Hierarchical Two- and Three-Dimensional Microstructures Composed of Rare-Earth Compound Nanotubes (pages 1448–1453)

      M. Yada, C. Taniguchi, T. Torikai, T. Watari, S. Furuta and H. Katsuki

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306676

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      Two- and three-dimensional hierarchical microstructures that are composed of rare-earth compound nanotubes have been formed by utilizing both the self-assembly phenomenon of the nanotubes and reactions at various interfaces. The template-free synthesis of the nanotubes by a homogeneous precipitation method controlled via coexisting anions is also described.

    15. Optically Switchable Bragg Reflectors (pages 1453–1456)

      A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda and T. Bunning

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400206

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      One-dimensional holographic photonic crystals that incorporate photochromic azobenzene-derived liquid crystals (LCs) have been produced. The additive photochromic molecules disrupt the host LC nematic order, inducing an isothermal phase transition and changing the effective dielectric properties of the LC layer (see Figure). This imparts photo-optic properties to the structure, allowing for its reflectivity to be modulated with exposure to light.

    16. Ultrahigh Pore Density Nanoporous Films Produced by the Phase Separation of Eutectic Al–Si for Template-Assisted Growth of Nanowire Array (pages 1456–1460)

      K. Fukutani, K. Tanji, T. Motoi and T. Den

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400268

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      Ultrahigh pore density nanoporous films with cylindrical pores that are perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to each other have been fabricated, and the Al nanocylinders successfully removed (see Figure). The template-assisted growth of ultrahigh density Ni nanowire arrays have also been achieved by direct-current electrodeposition with nearly 100 % of the pores filled with Ni.

    17. Fabrication of Super-Site-Selective TiO2 Micropattern on a Flexible Polymer Substrate Using a Barrier-Effect Self-Assembly Process (pages 1461–1464)

      J. Xiang, Y. Masuda and K. Koumoto

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400017

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      A super-site-selective micropattern of TiO2 on a flexible polymer substrate (see Figure) has been achieved by utilizing a barrier-effect self-assembly process. The TiO2 micropattern is useful as a UV filter for nanodevices in integrated electronic and optical circuits.

    18. Growth of Single-Crystalline Cubic GaN Nanotubes with Rectangular Cross-Sections (pages 1465–1468)

      J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, F. F. Xu, T. Sekiguchi and D. Golberg

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400016

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      The first reported growth of single-crystalline GaN nanotubes with rectangular cross-sections (see Figure) synthesized using Ga2O3 powder and NH3 as reagents is described. It is envisioned that, once the cores are filled with different semiconducting materials of various bandgaps, the materials could be used for interesting electrical and optical nanodevices.

    19. Silicon Inverse Opal—A Platform for Photonic Bandgap Research (pages 1471–1476)

      N. Tétreault, H. Míguez and G. A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400618

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      The silicon inverse opal (see Figure) is the first self-assembled or bottom–up synthetic photonic crystal to exhibit a complete photonic bandgap at 1.5 μm in accordance with theoretical predictions. It has since proven to be a useful platform for assembling on-chip films and in-chip patterns, engineering extrinsic defects, mapping photon density of states, switching light with light, and inhibiting spontaneous emission.