Advanced Materials

Cover image for Advanced Materials

September, 2004

Volume 16, Issue 17

Pages 1483–1570

    1. Comment on “Luminescent Nanoring Structures on Silicon” (pages 1493–1494)

      D. Jones, V. Palermo and A. Parisini

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306678

    2. Reply to “Comment On Luminescent Nanoring Structures On Silicon” (pages 1495–1496)

      K. Prabhakaran, F. Meneau, T. Murashita, G. N. Greaves, G. Sankar, Y. Homma and T. Ogino

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400386

    3. Inorganic Nanotubes (pages 1497–1504)

      M. Remškar

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306428

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      Over the last decade, nanotubes have become a symbol of new and fast-developing nanotechnology. Inorganic nanotubes are distinguished from carbon ones by important peculiarities, from their growth mechanisms to physical and chemical properties. The current status of research into inorganic nanotubes is discussed with an emphasis on structural properties, which are important for applications. The Figure shows a Au–WS2 nanotube.

    4. Control of Monocyte Morphology on and Response to Model Surfaces for Implants Equipped with Anti-Inflammatory Agent (pages 1507–1511)

      N. Benkirane-Jessel, P. Lavalle, F. Meyer, F. Audouin, B. Frisch, P. Schaaf, J. Ogier, G. Decher and J.-C. Voegel

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306613

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      In order to prevent local chronic inflammation due to biomaterials such as implants, surface coatings that are able to modulate inflammatory response have been developed. It is shown that polyelectrolyte multilayers containing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) can be advantageously used for this purpose. The presence of α-MSH has been demonstrated to induce cellular responses that can be modulated by varying the film architecture (see Figure).

    5. Arrays of Heterojunctions of Ag Nanowires and Amorphous Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1512–1515)

      J. Luo, Z. P. Huang, Y. G. Zhao, L. Zhang and J. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400608

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      Arrays of heterojunctions of Ag nanowires and amorphous carbon nanotubes have been synthesized. These heterojunctions have ohmic current–voltage characteristics based on the general characteristics of electronic structures of amorphous semiconductors and may provide a wide base for the design of various ohmic contacts in nanodevices. The Figure shows atomic force microscopy characterizations of a nanowire–nanotube array.

    6. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Highly Flame Retardant Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Polymers (pages 1515–1520)

      R. Kumar, R. Tyagi, V. S. Parmar, L. A. Samuelson, J. Kumar, A. Schoemann, P. R. Westmoreland and A. C. Watterson

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400241

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      A novel biocatalytic approach has been developed for the synthesis of highly flame-retardant, inorganic–organic polymers based on siloxanes (see Figure). The approach is simple, biochemically mild, and requires minimal separation and purification protocols. All synthesized polymers showed good flame-retardant properties.

    7. The Use of Charge Transfer to Enhance the Methane-Storage Capacity of Single-Walled, Nanostructured Carbon (pages 1520–1522)

      K. Murata, A. Hashimoto, M. Yudasaka, D. Kasuya, K. Kaneko and S. Iijima

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400240

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      The Figure illustrates methane densities adsorbed at 303 K and 3.5 MPa in pores of lanthanide-nitrate-dispersed, single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs). For reference, bulk methane density and methane density adsorbed in pores of as-grown SWNH are also depicted. A small amount of lanthanide-nitrate dispersion (0.1 mmol lanthanide nitrate per gram of SWNH) has been shown to strongly enhance methane adsorption.

    8. Ternary Imides for Hydrogen Storage (pages 1522–1525)

      Z. Xiong, G. Wu, J. Hu and P. Chen

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400571

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      Ternary imides of Li–Mg and Li–Ca were synthesized and tested for hydrogen storage. Li2MgN2H2, as an example, reversibly stores 5.5 wt.-% hydrogen at temperatures below 180 °C (see Figure) with relatively high desorption plateau pressures. The present work also reveals the significance of chemical reactions between amides and ionic hydrides in the design and synthesis of novel metal–N–H systems for hydrogen storage.

    9. First Example of a Nanoporous High-Temperature Polymer Thermoset: Eluding Transition–Time–Temperature Constraints Associated with Organic Thermosets (pages 1525–1529)

      E. F. Connor, V. Y. Lee, T. Magbitang, C. J. Hawker, W. Volksen, R. Siemens, R. A. DiPietro, J. C. Hedrick, H. C. Kim, R. D. Miller and J. L. Hedrick

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306321

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      A novel and general route to high Tg nanoporous organic thin films (see Figure) is described. The addition of reactive diluents to the thermosetting polyarylene resin creates a situation where the Tg exceeds the highest cure temperature. Hence, the sacrificial polymer used to generate the porosity can be decomposed in the glassy state, mitigating pore collapse.

    10. Direct Synthesis of a Macroscale Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Non-Woven Material (pages 1529–1534)

      L. Song, L. Ci, L. Lv, Z. Zhou, X. Yan, D. Liu, H. Yuan, Y. Gao, J. Wang, L. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Zhang, X. Dou, W. Zhou, G. Wang, C. Wang and S. Xie

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306393

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      A tough non-woven material of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with an area of up to several tens of square centimeters (see Figure) has been prepared by a direct-floating chemical vapor deposition method followed by purification. The SWNT non-woven material exhibits an extremely high Young's modulus of ca. 0.4–0.7 TPa, so it has potential applications in mechanical reinforcement of composite materials.

    11. A Columnar Superstructure Assembled with a Novel Gemini-Like Macrodiscogen Based on a Copper β-Diketonate Complex (pages 1534–1538)

      J.-Q. Jiang, Z.-R. Shen, J. Lu, P.-F. Fu, Y. Lin, H.-D. Tang, H.-W. Gu, J. Sun, P. Xie and R.-B. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306521

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      A unique metal-containing liquid crystal consisting of a novel gemini-like metallic macrodiscogen with copper-bis(β-diketonate)-based twin cores has been successfully synthesized. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to characterize the ideal square-planar conformation (see Figure). The low ionization potential and the reversible oxidation process values suggest a large capability for hole injection.

    12. White-Light Emission from a Single-Emitting-Component Organic Electroluminescent Device (pages 1538–1541)

      J. Y. Li, D. Liu, C. W. Ma, O. Lengyel, C.-S. Lee, C.-H. Tung and S. T. Lee

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200305838

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      Three-layer electroluminescent devices fabricated from 1,3,5-tris(2-(9-ethylcarbazyl-3)ethylene) benzene (TECEB) (see Figure) are shown to exhibit bright and efficient white light with a maximum luminescence and current efficiency of 1200 cd m–2 and 1.1 cd A–1, respectively. It is suggested that these represent the best reported results for single-emitting-component white electroluminescent devices to date.

    13. Tunable Nanocellular Polymeric Monoliths Using Fluorinated Block Copolymer Templates and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (pages 1542–1546)

      By H. Yokoyama, L. Li, T. Nemoto and K. Sugiyama

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400072

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      A novel, innocuous method which utilizes carbon dioxide to fabricate optically transparent nanocellular polymeric materials using a fluorinated block copolymer as the template is reported. The CO2-soluble fluorinated blocks effectively localize CO2 in the nanoscopic domains. At 0 °C, with slow depressurization, the block copolymer exhibits CO2-pressure-tunable nanocells of diameters between 10–30 nm, number densities of ∼1016 cells cm–3, and porosities of up to 50% (see Figure).

    14. A Microporous Titania Membrane for Nanofiltration and Pervaporation (pages 1546–1550)

      J. Sekulić, J. E. ten Elshof and D. H. A. Blank

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306472

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      The synthesis and properties of microporous titania membranes that contain pore sizes <1 nm are reported. The membranes show a molecular weight cut-off of less than 400 in nanofiltration, and are selective in the pervaporation of water from binary liquids.

    15. Uniform Metal Nanotube Arrays by Multistep Template Replication and Electrodeposition (pages 1550–1553)

      C. Mu, Y.-X. Yu, R. M. Wang, K. Wu, D. S. Xu and G.-L. Guo

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400129

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      A general and well-controlled process used to fabricate uniform metal nanotube arrays via a multi-step template replication and electrodeposition approach is reported. Each nanotube is highly ordered, uniform in wall thickness and diameter along the entire tube (see Figure).

    16. Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon and Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Materials with Graphitic Pore Walls via a Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Method (pages 1553–1558)

      Y. Xia and R. Mokaya

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400391

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      Ordered mesoporous carbon and nitrogen-doped (CNx) materials with graphitic pore walls have been prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using mesoporous silica (SBA-15) as a solid template and styrene or acetonitrile as carbon source. CVD temperatures above 850 °C were found to be most suitable for the fabrication of structurally well-ordered mesoporous carbon materials with varying degrees of graphitic character for CNx materials (see Figure).

    17. Switchable Electrochromic Images Based on a Combined Top–Down Bottom–Up Approach (pages 1558–1562)

      M. Möller, S. Asaftei, D. Corr, M. Ryan and L. Walder

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400198

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      The preparation of switchable, high-resolution (360 dpi) electrochromic pictures in sealed transparent and reflective cells is described. Viologens were inkjet printed, chemically amplified, and crosslinked on mesoporous TiO2 thick-film electrodes (see Figure). As a counter electrode, e.g., optically transparent and electrochemically fast CeO2 on mesoporous antimony tin oxide was used.

    18. Production of Submicrometer Diameter Fibers by Two-Fluid Electrospinning (pages 1562–1566)

      J. H. Yu, S. V. Fridrikh and G. C. Rutledge

      Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200306644

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      Electrospinning of nanofibers of materials that are difficult to process using conventional techniques is reported. Two fluids are electrospun (see Figure) into fibers with core/shell morphology. The “electrospinnable” shell fluid serves as a process aid to electrospin the core fluid. Three examples are illustrated: production of fibers with diameters less than 100 nm, fibers formed of low-molecular-weight polyaniline, and non-blended electrospun silk fibers.