Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 23

December, 2005

Volume 17, Issue 23

Pages 2777–2896

    1. Cover Picture: DNA-Templated Silver Nanorings (Adv. Mater. 23/2005)

      A. A. Zinchenko, K. Yoshikawa and D. Baigl

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200590121

      Monodisperse silver rings with nanometer-scale diameters (see Figure) are produced due to the ability of DNA to organize into toroidal condensates with well-defined shapes and sizes upon its interaction with multications. Silver ions can bind to the residual negative surface charge of condensed DNA, and are then reduced to silver metal to yield DNA toroids coated with a thin silver metal shell.

    2. Inside Front Cover: Tailoring Cell Adhesion Using Surface-Grafted Polymer Gradient Assemblies (Adv. Mater. 23/2005)

      R. R. Bhat, B. N. Chaney, J. Rowley, A. Liebmann-Vinson and J. Genzer

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200590122

      Surface-grafted polymer assemblies with a gradient in molecular weight (MW) and/or grafting density (σ) are used to tune protein adsorption, which consequently governs cell adhesion. Increasing the surface coverage of the polymer by increasing the MW and/or σ results in a decrease in the amount of protein adsorbed, which causes a decrease in the number of cells adhered and a change in cell morphology

    3. Reply: Mesoporous Zeolite ZSM-5 Nanocast from Mesoporous Carbon Templates (pages 2791–2792)

      Z. X. Yang, Y. D. Xia and R. Mokaya

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500798

    4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Spectroscopy in Live Cells: Towards Long-Term Labels and Optical Sensors (pages 2793–2799)

      D. A. Heller, S. Baik, T. E. Eurell and M. S. Strano

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500477

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-walled carbon nanotubes form the basis of new non-photobleaching cell markers that remain visible in live cells for up to three months and do not impede cell viability. In-vitro spectroscopy of the intrinsic near-IR fluorescence and Raman scattering of the nanotubes maps the localization of nanotube complexes, which accumulate in perinuclear endosomes (see Figure). The markers are also detectable in hematoxylin and eosin stained cells and exhibit spectral changes due to the nanotubes' environment.

    5. Nanocrystals of an Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Semiconductor: Formation of Uniform Nanobelts of [ZnSe](Diethylenetriamine)0.5 in a Ternary Solution (pages 2799–2802)

      W. Yao, S. H. Yu, X. Y. Huang, J. Jiang, L. Q. Zhao, L. Pan and J. Li

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501343

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Well-defined inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductor nanobelts (see Figure) are produced by large-scale solvothermal synthesis through tuning the composition of a ternary solution composed of diethylenetriamine (DETA), hydrazine hydrate, and deionized water. A suitable amount of hydrazine hydrate is essential for the formation of elegant and uniform [ZnSe](EDTA)0.5 nanobelts.

    6. Tailoring Cell Adhesion Using Surface-Grafted Polymer Gradient Assemblies (pages 2802–2807)

      R. R. Bhat, B. N. Chaney, J. Rowley, A. Liebmann-Vinson and J. Genzer

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500858

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface-grafted polymer assemblies with a gradient in molecular weight (MW) and/or grafting density (σ) are used to tune protein adsorption, which consequently governs cell adhesion. Increasing the surface coverage of the polymer by increasing the MW and/or σ results in a decrease in the amount of protein adsorbed, which causes a decrease in the number of cells adhered and a change in cell morphology.

    7. Dynamic Lasing from All-Organic Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals (pages 2807–2811)

      R. Jakubiak, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, P. Lloyd, T. J. Bunning and R. A. Vaia

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501291

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      Optically pumped lasing of pyrromethene 597 in 2D columnar photonic crystals (PCs) derived from holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (LCs, see Figure) exhibit resolution-limited linewidths of 1.9 nm and thresholds of less than 200 μJ cm–2. Electric field modulation of the LC directors allows tuning of the laser mode over 5 nm. Use of PC properties that go beyond those associated with the photonic bandgap may lead to organic-based PCs for linear/nonlinear nanophotonics.

    8. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Fluorometric and Colorimetric Sensing of Copper(II) Ions (pages 2811–2815)

      X. He, H. Liu, Y. Li, S. Wang, Y. Li, N. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Xu and D. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A sensor for Cu2+ ions is described based on modulation of the quenching of the photoluminescence of the perylene bisimide chromophore by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, see Figure). The sensor turns on the fluorescence signal in the presence of Cu2+ ions—an advantage over traditional Cu2+ sensors, which turn off the signal—and shows specific recognition of Cu2+ over other metal ions.

    9. AgI Nanoplates with Mesoscopic Superionic Conductivity at Room Temperature (pages 2815–2819)

      Y.-G. Guo, J.-S. Lee and J. Maier

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501215

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      AgI nanoplates with unusual 7H and 9R polytype phases (see Figure) have been prepared in large quantities by a solution-based method using polyelectrolytes. The nanoplates exhibit extremely high conductivity, which is enhanced by four orders of magnitude compared to the macroscopic AgI phase (β-AgI), and a surprising conductivity isotropy, both of which can be explained by mesoscopic ionic-conductivity effects in polytype heterostructures.

    10. DNA-Templated Silver Nanorings (pages 2820–2823)

      A. A. Zinchenko, K. Yoshikawa and D. Baigl

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501549

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Monodisperse silver rings with nanometer-scale diameters (see Figure) are produced due to the ability of DNA to organize into toroidal condensates with well-defined shapes and sizes upon its interaction with multications. Silver ions can bind to the residual negative surface charge of condensed DNA, and are then reduced to silver metal to yield DNA toroids coated with a thin silver metal shell.

    11. Tunable Materials from Hydrogen-Bonded Pseudo Block Copolymers (pages 2824–2828)

      W. H. Binder, S. Bernstorff, C. Kluger, L. Petraru and M. J. Kunz

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501505

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Pseudo block copolymers with tunable micro- or macrophase-separated structures are created by introducing multiple hydrogen-bonding groups at the polymer ends (see Figure). The resulting materials are stabilized up to 80 °C above the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the higher-Tg component.

    12. Simple Fabrication of a Highly Sensitive and Fast Glucose Biosensor Using Enzymes Immobilized in Mesocellular Carbon Foam (pages 2828–2833)

      D. Lee, J. Lee, J. Kim, J. Kim, H. B. Na, B. Kim, C.-H. Shin, J. H. Kwak, A. Dohnalkova, J. W. Grate, T. Hyeon and H.-S. Kim

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500793

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Glucose oxidase immobilized in mesocellular carbon foam results in a highly sensitive and fast glucose biosensor. The structure of the mesocellular foam (see Figure), with a combination of mesopores containing the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzymes and micropores and transport channels, results in high enzyme loading and low mass-transfer limitations, producing higher catalytic activity and sensitivity than polymer-matrix-based GOx glucose sensors.

    13. Low-Temperature Synthesis of LixMn0.67Ni0.33O2 (0.2 < x < 0.33) Nanowires with a Hexagonal Layered Structure (pages 2834–2837)

      D. H. Park, S. T. Lim, S.-J. Hwang, C.-S. Yoon, Y.-K. Sun and J.-H. Choy

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500638

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hexagonal layered lithium nickel manganate nanowires (see Figure) are prepared in large amounts through a simple soft-chemical redox reaction of a LiMn0.5Ni0.5O2 precursor. The structure and chemical composition of the nanowires can be tailored by tuning the reaction conditions. The resultant multicomponent nanowires show promise as a cathode material for Li secondary batteries.

    14. Patterned MoS2 Nanostructures Over Centimeter-Square Areas (pages 2837–2841)

      C. L. Stender, E. C. Greyson, Y. Babayan and T. W. Odom

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500856

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple fabrication route combining large-area nanoscale-patterning methods with gaseous sulfidation is used to generate well-ordered, highly crystalline arrays of MoS2 nanostructures. Independent control over the dimensions of the patterned nanostructures can be achieved. Preferential orientation of MoS2 nanocrystals relative to the surface is observed (see Figure) depending on the position of the patterned substrates within the tube furnace.

    15. Efficient Organic Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells Based on Triplet Materials (pages 2841–2844)

      Y. Shao and Y. Yang

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501297

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-performance organic photovoltaic heterojunction based on the triplet material, 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphineplatinum(II) (PtOEP), is demonstrated and 2.1 % energy-conversion efficiency obtained (see Figure). As the exciton diffusion length might be extended greatly, triplet materials have great potential for use in organic and polymer solar cells.

    16. Lateral Templating for Guided Self-Organization of Sputter Morphologies (pages 2845–2849)

      A. Cuenat, H. B. George, K.-C. Chang, J. M. Blakely and M. J. Aziz

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500717

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spontaneously emerging topographic patterns on a Si(100) substrate are guided to develop long-range order (see Figure) by using prefabricated boundaries on the area on which they organize. The density of topological defects, such as dislocations, is minimized when the ratio of the spacing between boundaries to the naturally arising spatial period is near an integer value.

    17. Incorporation of Point Defects into Self-Assembled Three-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals (pages 2849–2853)

      Q. Yan, A. Chen, S. J. Chua and X. S. Zhao

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Point-defect arrays embedded in self-assembled silica colloidal photonic crystals (see Figure) have been fabricated using a combination of conventional “top–down” nanoimprinting lithography with “bottom–up” self assembly. The relative locations of the point defects in the structure can be precisely controlled. These structures may find use in technological applications such as low-threshold lasers and light-emitting diodes.

    18. Synthesis of Polyaniline with a Hollow, Octahedral Morphology by Using a Cuprous Oxide Template (pages 2854–2857)

      Z. Zhang, J. Sui, L. Zhang, M. Wan, Y. Wei and L. Yu

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501114

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      Hollow octahedrons of polyaniline (PANI) were prepared using Cu2O as a template in the presence of H3PO4 and (NH4)2S2O8 as a dopant and an oxidant, respectively (see Figure). The Cu2O template can be used to prepare different morphologies of PANI (e.g., hollow octahedrons and spheres). Compared with other conventional templates, the Cu2O template is unique (in terms of both shape and quality) and omits the need for template-removal treatment.

    19. Graphitized Carbon Nanobeads with an Onion Texture as a Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrode for High-Rate Use (pages 2857–2860)

      H. Wang, T. Abe, S. Maruyama, Y. Iriyama, Z. Ogumi and K. Yoshikawa

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500320

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Graphitized carbon nanobeads (GCNBs) can be used as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries, resulting in improved rate performance and increased stability towards graphite exfoliation in propylene carbonate based electrolytes. The discharge rate capacity of GCNB remains high even at high charging rates (triangles) compared with highly graphitized mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs, circles).

    20. Nanomechanical Architecture of Strained Bilayer Thin Films: From Design Principles to Experimental Fabrication (pages 2860–2864)

      M. Huang, C. Boone, M. Roberts, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, N. Shaji, H. Qin, R. Blick, J. A. Nairn and F. Liu

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501353

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      Design principles for nanostructures are proposed based on the controlled folding of strained thin bilayer films. By controlling the geometry of the bilayer films, calculations can predict formation of structures such as nanorings, nanodrills, and nanocoils (see Figure). In theory, this approach could be applied to the fabrication of nanostructures from other combinations of different classes of materials.

    21. Carbon Nanofibers Allow Foaming of Semicrystalline Poly(ether ether ketone) (pages 2864–2869)

      P. Werner, R. Verdejo, F. Wöllecke, V. Altstädt, J. K. W. Sandler and M. S. P. Shaffer

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500709

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      High-performance composite foams of carbon nanofiber-reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) have been produced for the first time (see Figure). The nanofibers perform two roles: optimization of the rheological properties of the polymer melt to allow foaming and improvement of the mechanical properties of the polymer. This unique performance combination is likely to be relevant to a variety of matrices, particularly semicrystalline thermoplastics.

    22. Epitaxial Magnetic Perovskite Nanostructures (pages 2869–2872)

      D. Ruzmetov, Y. Seo, L. J. Belenky, D.-M. Kim, X. Ke, H. Sun, V. Chandrasekhar, C.-B. Eom, M. S. Rzchowski and X. Pan

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501240

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Regular arrays of magnetic perovskite dots less than 100 nm in diameter (see Figure) are made by a process incorporating pulsed laser deposition, patterning with electron-beam lithography, and exposure to neutralized 200 eV Ar ions. The nanodots preserve the magnetic properties of large-area magnetic perovskite films, and are the smallest structures made of these materials to date.

    23. Direct Growth of Mono- and Multilayer Nanostructured Porous Films on Curved Surfaces and Their Application as Gas Sensors (pages 2872–2877)

      F. Sun, W. Cai, Y. Li, L. Jia and F. Lu

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500936

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polystyrene sphere colloidal monolayers can be stripped off in some precursor solutions. A simple and flexible method is presented to directly synthesize nanostructured ordered porous films on any desired substrate with flat or even curved surfaces and then construct nanostructured porous gas sensors on commercially supplied ceramic tubes (see Figure).

    24. Hybrid Quantum-Dot–Polymer Nanocomposites for Infrared Photorefractivity at an Optical Communication Wavelength (pages 2877–2881)

      K. Roy Choudhury, Y. Sahoo and P. N. Prasad

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501489

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A multifunctional hybrid photorefractive nanocomposite has been developed (see Figure); it consists of a carbazole-based photoconducting matrix, a nonlinear chromophore, and suitably size-tuned PbSe quantum dots with spectral response at the optical communication wavelength of 1550 nm. Efficient harvesting of IR photons in the device leads to good photoconductivity, high net optical gain, and significant diffraction efficiency at the operating wavelength.

    25. Self-Organized Patterning: Regular and Spatially Tunable Luminescent Submicrometer Stripes Over Large Areas (pages 2881–2885)

      X. Chen, M. Hirtz, H. Fuchs and L. Chi

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-organized luminescent stripe patterns (see Figure) with submicrometer-scale lateral dimensions are obtained by transferring dye/phosphatidylcholine mixed monolayers onto a solid substrate by means of Langmuir–Blodgett deposition. The regular luminescent stripe formation can be interpreted as a substrate-induced microphase separation and a periodic oscillation of the meniscus at the three-phase contact line.

    26. Local Three-Dimensional Visualization of Nanoparticle Assemblies (pages 2885–2888)

      Z. Y. Li, J. Yuan, Y. Chen, R. E. Palmer and J. P. Wilcoxon

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500977

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging technique in the scanning transmission electron microscope has been exploited to study self-assembled multilayer structures of Au/Ag nanoparticles. The HAADF image intensity depends monotonically on the mass and thickness of the sample. Various film thickness between one to four monolayers can be easily distinguished by evaluating the contrast (see Figure).

    27. Covalent Hybrid Materials Based on Nanolatex Particles and Dawson Polyoxometalates (pages 2888–2892)

      C. Cannizzo, C. R. Mayer, F. Sécheresse and C. Larpent

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500685

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new nanohybrid organic–inorganic material is synthesized from a nanolatex particle organic core and a functionalized Dawson polyoxotungstate inorganic shell (see Figure). The host matrix is covalently attached to the inorganic moieties through a thiol function.

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