Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 16

August, 2006

Volume 18, Issue 16

Pages 2063–2198

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Cover Picture: 3D Polymer Microframes That Exploit Length-Scale-Dependent Mechanical Behavior (Adv. Mater. 16/2006)

      J.-H. Jang, C. K. Ullal, T. Choi, M. C. Lemieux, V. V. Tsukruk and E. L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690065

      Holographic interference lithography is used to create a 3D polymer microframe with sub-micrometer periodicity, low density, and 200 nm feature size. These structures exhibit interesting deformational characteristics (see figure) with ultimate strains reaching ca. 300 %, much higher than the strains attainable in bulk films of either the fully crosslinked solid polymeric material or the uncrosslinked glassy monomer precursor.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: A Supramolecular Approach to Optically Anisotropic Materials: Photosensitive Ionic Self-Assembly Complexes (Adv. Mater. 16/2006)

      Y. Zakrevskyy, J. Stumpe and C. F. J. Faul

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690066

      Application of the supramolecular-synthesis strategy ionic self-assembly for the facile production of low-molecular-weight photo-addressable materials (see figure) is presented. The materials have good film-forming properties, long-term thermal stability, and, most importantly, dichroic ratios of 50.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 16/2006 (pages 2063–2071)

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690063

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Recent Progress in the Synthesis of Porous Carbon Materials (pages 2073–2094)

      J. Lee, J. Kim and T. Hyeon

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501576

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Progress in the synthesis of porous carbon materials over the last ten years is presented. Porous carbon materials with various pore sizes and pore structures have been synthesized using several different routes, including using zeolites, mesoporous silica materials, various designed silica templates, and colloidal crystal templates. Some of these mesoporous carbon materials can be used as adsorbents for bulky pollutants, as electrodes for supercapacitors and fuel cells, and as hosts for enzyme immobilization.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Site-Specific Patterning of Biomolecules and Quantum Dots on Functionalized Surfaces Generated by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (pages 2095–2100)

      J. M. Slocik, E. R. Beckel, H. Jiang, J. O. Enlow, J. S. Zabinski Jr., T. J. Bunning and R. R. Naik

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600077

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor patterned surfaces are used for site- specific attachment of biomolecules and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs; see figure). The fabrication of surfaces with multiple functional building blocks can be used in a single step to create complex multifunctional patterned substrates incorporating self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and thiol-functionalized quantum dots for a variety of applications.

    2. Ink-jet Printing and Microwave Sintering of Conductive Silver Tracks (pages 2101–2104)

      J. Perelaer, B.-J. de Gans and U. S. Schubert

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502422

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Conductive silver tracks on a polyimide substrate (see figure) are prepared by using microwave radiation to sinter silver nanoparticles printed on the substrate. This method shortens the necessary sintering time dramatically and is independent of the substrate used. Since the polymer substrate is virtually transparent to microwave radiation, a negligible amount of energy is absorbed by the substrate, whereas the conducting silver nanoparticles, with a high dielectric loss factor, strongly absorb the microwaves.

    3. Multiply Configurable Optical-Logic Systems Based on Cationic Conjugated Polymer/DNA Assemblies (pages 2105–2110)

      Y. Tang, F. He, S. Wang, Y. Li, D. Zhu and G. C. Bazan

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501534

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Information processing by integrated logic gates capable of YES, NOT, AND, NAND, INH, and INHIBIT operations can be simulated using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in cationic conjugated polymer/DNA/ ethidium bromide (EB) intercalating-dye assemblies. Additionally, a reversible XNOR logic gate can be designed and implemented with these materials. The figure shows the scheme for the INHIBIT logic gate.

    4. Pixellated Photonic Crystal Films by Selective Photopolymerization (pages 2111–2116)

      S.-K. Lee, G.-R. Yi, J. H. Moon, S.-M. Yang and D. J. Pine

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502630

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mosaic patterns of blue, green, and orange colors (see figure) are obtained using a multistep photolithography process. Inverse opal films have been pixellated by this process using colloidal crystals as templates, resulting in multicolor patterns. The degree of photopolymerization is controlled by adjusting the UV exposure time and, thus, the refractive color of the inverse opal can be modulated.

    5. A Highly Ordered Mesoporous Aluminosilicate, CMI-10, with a Si/Al Ratio of One (pages 2117–2122)

      X.-Y. Yang, A. Vantomme, A. Lemaire, F.-S. Xiao and B.-L. Su

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600247

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A facile and unique but versatile approach for the synthesis of highly organized mesoporous mixed-element oxide materials with defined structure, high heteroatom content, and stable active sites is presented (see figure). Because of the high homogeneity of the Al sites, the controlled immobilization of (bio)molecules and nanoparticles and the controlled growth of nanowires with relevant new properties may be possible.

    6. 3D Polymer Microframes That Exploit Length-Scale-Dependent Mechanical Behavior (pages 2123–2127)

      J.-H. Jang, C. K. Ullal, T. Choi, M. C. Lemieux, V. V. Tsukruk and E. L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600249

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Holographic interference lithography is used to create a 3D polymer microframe with sub-micrometer periodicity, low density, and 200 nm feature size. These structures exhibit interesting deformational characteristics (see figure) with ultimate strains reaching ca. 300 %, much higher than the strains attainable in bulk films of either the fully crosslinked solid polymeric material or the uncrosslinked glassy monomer precursor.

    7. Actuation in Crosslinked Polymers via Photoinduced Stress Relaxation (pages 2128–2132)

      T. F. Scott, R. B. Draughon and C. N. Bowman

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600379

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoinduced polymer actuation by relieving stress unevenly through the thickness of a chemically crosslinked, rubbery polymer upon light exposure is demonstrated (see figure). The sensitivity of this method to light is greater than previously developed photoinduced actuation techniques, as the recurring chain-transfer reactions amplify the effects of each absorbed photon and subsequently generated radical on the stress-relief and actuation processes.

    8. A Supramolecular Approach to Optically Anisotropic Materials: Photosensitive Ionic Self-Assembly Complexes (pages 2133–2136)

      Y. Zakrevskyy, J. Stumpe and C. F. J. Faul

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600631

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Application of the supramolecular-synthesis strategy ionic self-assembly for the facile production of low-molecular-weight photo-addressable materials (see figure) is presented. The materials have good film-forming properties, long-term thermal stability, and, most importantly, dichroic ratios of 50.

    9. The β-Phase of Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) as a Potential System for Electrically Pumped Organic Lasing (pages 2137–2140)

      C. Rothe, F. Galbrecht, U. Scherf and A. Monkman

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600901

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) shows a very low amplified spontaneous emission threshold because of its well-resolved emission spectrum. Within the amorphous PFO, the β-phase sites act similar to a dopant as they trap excitons and charges. The figure shows the blue-light-emitting β-phase in a PFO solution.

    10. Conducting Polymer as Transparent Electric Glue (pages 2141–2144)

      J. Ouyang and Y. Yang

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502475

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A solvent-free electrically conductive glue using conducting PEDOT:PSS is reported. This electric glue exhibits a conductivity of 102 S cm–1, and can effectively laminate various materials electrically and mechanically. The organic electronic devices fabricated through a lamination process using this electric glue exhibit high performance. The figure shows a laminated polymer light-emitting diode under an electric field.

    11. Tunable Synthesis of Bismuth Ferrites with Various Morphologies (pages 2145–2148)

      J.-T. Han, Y.-H. Huang, X.-J. Wu, C.-L. Wu, W. Wei, B. Peng, W. Huang and J. B. Goodenough

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The multiferroic bismuth ferrites Bi12Fe0.63O18.945, BiFeO3, and Bi2Fe4O9 have been selectively synthesized from the same bismuth and iron sources via a simple hydrothermal route. The controllable morphologies shown in the figure can be obtained by changing the pH of the precursor solution and the heating temperature. SEM and TEM characterization confirm the high quality of the products, while magnetic measurements indicate G-type spin antiferromagnetic ordering.

    12. Naphthyl End-Capped Quarterthiophene: A Simple Organic Semiconductor with High Mobility and Air Stability (pages 2149–2152)

      H. K. Tian, J. W. Shi, D. H. Yan, L. X. Wang, Y. H. Geng and F. S. Wang

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600178

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An organic semiconductor that can be mass produced is synthesized by end-capping quaterthiophene with naphthyl units (NaT4). An organic thin-film transistor (OTFT, see figure) has been fabricated using this organic semiconductor, and exhibits stability under ambient conditions with a mobility of up to 0.40 cm2 V–1 s–1.

    13. Ordered Arrays of Mesoporous Microrods from Recyclable Macroporous Silicon Templates (pages 2153–2156)

      X. Chen, M. Steinhart, C. Hess and U. Gösele

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600365

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ordered arrays of freestanding mesoporous microrods (see figure) are obtained from macroporous silicon templates with hydrophobized pore walls. The microrods can be removed from the template by simple mechanical lift-off. Since no wet-chemical etching step is involved, condensation of the rods is avoided and the template can be recycled. The hierarchical structures combine features on the nano- and microscale and have a well-controlled geometry.

    14. Isotopically Enriched 10BN Nanotubes (pages 2157–2160)

      J. Yu, Y. Chen, R. G. Elliman and M. Petravic

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600231

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Isotopically enriched 10BN nanotubes, shown in the figure, have been produced for the first time. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis confirms a high content of 10B in the nanotubes. The 10BN nanotubes are lightweight, have excellent mechanical properties, a stronger resistance to oxidation than carbon nanotubes, and superior radiation shielding properties, offering a multifunctional material with promising space radiation shielding applications.

    15. An Easy Way to Construct an Ordered Array of Nickel Nanotubes: The Triblock-Copolymer-Assisted Hard-Template Method (pages 2161–2164)

      F. Tao, M. Guan, Y. Jiang, J. Zhu, Z. Xu and Z. Xue

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600275

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ordered arrays of nickel nanotubes (see figure) have been prepared by a novel and universal approach, utilizing the triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 without any surface modification to the porous alumina template. The wall thickness of the nickel nanotubes can be adjusted by the electric current density and electrodeposition time. Magnetic measurements on the array of Ni nanotubes reveal an enhanced coercivity compared to bulk Ni.

    16. Microporous Zirconia–Titania Composite Membranes Derived from Diethanolamine-Modified Precursors (pages 2165–2168)

      G. I. Spijksma, C. Huiskes, N. E. Benes, H. Kruidhof, D. H. A. Blank, V. G. Kessler and H. J. M. Bouwmeester

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502568

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microporous zirconia–titania composite membranes have been fabricated by sol–gel processing using diethanolamine-modified precursor solutions. Microporous materials made from powders calcined at 400 °C show type I nitrogen sorption behavior. Supported ∼0.1 μm thick membranes (see figure) exhibit molecular-sieving properties and are expected to have great potential for separation and reaction applications under harsh conditions.

    17. Low-Bandgap Alternating Fluorene Copolymer/Methanofullerene Heterojunctions in Efficient Near-Infrared Polymer Solar Cells (pages 2169–2173)

      F. Zhang, W. Mammo, L. M. Andersson, S. Admassie, M. R. Andersson and O. Inganäs

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600124

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Efficient near-IR polymer solar cells based on the low-bandgap alternating fluorene copolymer APFO-Green 5 (shown in the figure) exhibit a photoresponse up to 800 nm. The copolymer performs well in combination with the common electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), reaching a power-conversion efficiency of 2.2 % with a lower PCBM content in the active layer than previous devices based on low-bandgap polymers.

    18. Covalent Attachment of Low Molecular Weight Poly(ethylene imine) Improves Tat Peptide Mediated Gene Delivery (pages 2174–2178)

      F. Alexis, S.-L. Lo and S. Wang

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A polymer-peptide hybrid biomaterial synthesized by coupling poly(ethylene imine) directly to resin-supported Tat peptide takes advantage of the unique features associated with the two original cationic materials and functions as a novel gene-delivery vector with good biocompatibility. The figure shows cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) using complexes of the polymer-peptide hybrid and GFP (scale bar: 100 μm).

    19. Recognition-Controlled Assembly of Nanoparticles Using Photochemically Crosslinked Recognition-Induced Polymersomes (pages 2179–2183)

      R. J. Thibault, O. Uzun, R. Hong and V. M. Rotello

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600357

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photocrosslinking of recognition-induced polymersomes provides robust hollow spheres with tunable sizes from 3 to 15 μm (see figure). These capsules selectively integrate complementary nanoparticles into their walls, providing direct access to assemblies.

    20. Directed Integration of Tetracyanoquinodimethane-Cu Organic Nanowires into Prefabricated Device Architectures (pages 2184–2188)

      K. Xiao, I. N. Ivanov, A. A. Puretzky, Z. Liu and D. B. Geohegan

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600621

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-crystal nanowires of the organic semiconductor tetracyanoquinodimethane-Cu (TCNQ-Cu) are directly integrated into prefabricated microelectrode structures by growing the wires from an intermediate copper layer on the electrodes, as shown in the figure. This technique allows the nanowire growth to be integrated with device fabrication on a wide variety of substrates, eliminating the need for further assembly. The nanowire devices show bistable electrical switching behavior, which may be useful for high-density data storage.

    21. Shape-Controlled Bi2S3 Nanocrystals and Their Plasma Polymerization into Flexible Films (pages 2189–2194)

      R. Malakooti, L. Cademartiri, Y. Akçakir, S. Petrov, A. Migliori and G. A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600460

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bi2S3 colloidal nanocrystals have been synthesized through a heterogeneous gram-scale hot-injection method yielding a low-polydispersity, shape-controlled product (dots or rods). Plasma polymerization of nanocrystal assemblies into flexible films is demonstrated (see figure) and characterized.

  6. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Book Review: Cellular Ceramics. By Michael Scheffler and Paolo Colombo (Eds.). (page 2195)

      Steven L. Suib

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502413

  7. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Mater. 16/2006 (pages 2197–2198)

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690064

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