Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 19

October, 2006

Volume 18, Issue 19

Pages 2495–2646

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Templated Fabrication of Nanowire and Nanoring Arrays Based on Interference Lithography and Electrochemical Deposition (Adv. Mater. 19/2006)

      R. Ji, W. Lee, R. Scholz, U. Gösele and K. Nielsch

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690078

      Periodic photoresist patterns have been fabricated by laser interference lithography over a wafer-scale area. The structures are used as an etching mask for the subsequent reactive-ion etching of the underlying Si3N4 layer and etched about 9 nm into the highly doped Si substrate. Au nanowire or nanoring arrays have been prepared by selective electrochemical deposition on the step edges of the Si3N4 structures (see figure and cover).

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: A Combinatorial Library of Photocrosslinkable and Degradable Materials (Adv. Mater. 19/2006)

      D. G. Anderson, C. A. Tweedie, N. Hossain, S. M. Navarro, D. M. Brey, K. J. Van Vliet, R. Langer and J. A. Burdick

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690079

      A library of acrylate-terminated poly(β-amino ester)s is synthesized in parallel (see figure and inside cover) via a condensation reaction that combines primary or secondary amines with diacrylates. This library of macromers is then photopolymerized to form networks with a wide range of degradation and mechanical properties. Because of the diversity in properties, these polymers could be developed and screened for numerous applications ranging from microdevices to biomaterials.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Index
  4. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      A Simple Sol–Gel Synthesis of Superconducting MgB2 Nanowires (page 2504)

      M. Nath and B. A. Parkinson

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690076

      This article corrects:

      A Simple Sol–Gel Synthesis of Superconducting MgB2 Nanowires1

      Vol. 18, Issue 14, 1865–1868, Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2006

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Index
    1. Templated Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers: Top-Down Helps Bottom-Up (pages 2505–2521)

      J. Y. Cheng, C. A. Ross, H. I. Smith and E. L. Thomas

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502651

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-assembling block polymers can act as the building blocks of future advanced nanotechnologies based on “bottom-up” fabrication methods. “Top-down” lithographic approaches offer arbitrary geometrical designs and superior nanometer-level precision, accuracy, and registration, as illustrated in the figure. By combining “bottom-up” self-assembly with “top-down” patterned templates, templated-self-assembly (TSA) emerges as an innovative nanofabrication method.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Index
    1. A New Molecular Switch Based on Helical Biladienone (pages 2523–2528)

      E. Matsui, N. N. Matsuzawa, O. Harnack, T. Yamauchi, T. Hatazawa, A. Yasuda and T. Mizutani

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501761

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A molecular field-effect switch (FES) employing zinc biladienone as the active element is reported (see figure). The switching mechanism is investigated and a new FES switching mechanism is proposed in which the molecules separate from the electrodes and their molecular orientation changes when a gate voltage is applied.

    2. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Gold Nanodecahedra with Size Control (pages 2529–2534)

      A. Sánchez-Iglesias, I. Pastoriza-Santos, J. Pérez-Juste, B. Rodríguez-González, F. J. García de Abajo and L. M. Liz-Marzán

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600475

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Regular gold nanodecahedra (pentagonal bipyramids) are obtained in high yield through ultrasound-induced reduction of HAuCl4 by dimethylformamide on presynthesized seeds (see figure). A dependence of the final morphology on the crystalline structure of the seeds is demonstrated by growing gold on single-crystal platinum nanoparticles, which yields uniform octahedra. Resolution of Maxwell's equations for bicones shows good agreement with experimental optical properties.

    3. Optoelectronic Switch and Memory Devices Based on Polymer-Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Transistors (pages 2535–2540)

      J. Borghetti, V. Derycke, S. Lenfant, P. Chenevier, A. Filoramo, M. Goffman, D. Vuillaume and J.-P. Bourgoin

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601138

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optoelectronic devices combining the high electrical performances of carbon nanotubes with the remarkable optical properties of polymers are demonstrated (see figure). Photoinduced, λ-dependent, robust, and reversible modulation of the device conductance is achieved. The optical response is based on the trapping of photoexcited electrons at the polymer dielectric interface. Such a nanotube-based device proves a very sensitive probe to study the dynamics and spatial distribution of charges in polymers.

    4. Sr2TMO3 (TM = Ni, Co) Compounds with 1D TM–O Chains (pages 2541–2544)

      M. Ohtani, H. Kishida, K. Hirota, H. Sakurada, N. Kawamoto, Y. Murakami, K. Ueno, J. Matsuno, Y. Okimoto, T. Makino, Y. Segawa, Y. Tokura, D. Shindo, H. Okamoto and M. Kawasaki

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501759

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sr2TMO3 (TM = Ni,Co) compounds with 1D TM-O chains have been successfully synthesized in the form of single-crystalline thin films using a combinatorial approach. The crystal structure is examined using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution TEM (see figure). Polarized absorption spectroscopy and third-harmonic generation spectroscopy reveal a 1D electronic structure and sizable nonlinear optical susceptibility, respectively, for Sr2NiO3.

    5. Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites (pages 2545–2548)

      Y. Q. Li, A. Rizzo, R. Cingolani and G. Gigli

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600181

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A hybrid white-light-emitting device (see figure) whose emission originates only from ternary nanocrystal (quantum dot) composites but whose luminance performance matches the requirements of the lighting industry is demonstrated. The bright white-light emission is obtained by controlling the Förster energy transfer and charge-trapping mechanisms between the different components.

    6. Ordered Supramolecular Assembly of Porphyrin–Fullerene Composites on Nanostructured SnO2 Electrodes (pages 2549–2552)

      S. Kang, T. Umeyama, M. Ueda, Y. Matano, H. Hotta, K. Yoshida, S. Isoda, M. Shiro and H. Imahori

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600312

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Very high photocurrent generation is seen for an ordered supramolecular composite structure of C60 and porphyrin assembled on SnO2 electrodes. The simple substitution of methoxy groups at the meta positions of the meso-phenyl groups on the porphyrin ring leads to the ordered stacking arrangement shown in the figure, with separate electron and hole transport paths along the 1D porphyrin chains and 2D C60 sheets.

    7. Preparation of Biocompatible Magnetite Nanocrystals for In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Detection of Cancer (pages 2553–2556)

      F. Q. Hu, L. Wei, Z. Zhou, Y. L. Ran, Z. Li and M. Y. Gao

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600385

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Biocompatible Fe3O4 magnetic nanocrystals with reactive moieties on the surface can be prepared via a “one-pot” reaction and used straightforwardly in cancer detection by being coupled with a specific cancer-targeting antibody. It is demonstrated that the as-prepared Fe3O4 nanocrystals can potentially be used as effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for cancer diagnosis (see figure).

    8. Porphyrin Nanofiber Bundles from Phase-Transfer Ionic Self-Assembly and Their Photocatalytic Self-Metallization (pages 2557–2560)

      Z. Wang, K. J. Ho, C. J. Medforth and J. A. Shelnutt

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600539

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Porphyrin nanofiber bundles (see figure) are synthesized by a novel phase-transfer ionic self-assembly technique, allowing the use of a wide range of water-insoluble porphyrin tectons. Their photocatalytic self-metallization with Pt, Au, Ag, or Pt–Au alloys result in unusual porphyrin–metal composite nanostructures with potential applications in catalysis, sensing, and solar hydrogen production.

    9. MoS2–Ni Nanocomposites as Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene and Thiophene Derivatives (pages 2561–2564)

      F. Y. Cheng, J. Chen and X. L. Gou

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600912

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanocomposites for the petroleum industry are presented. MoS2 nanotubes with Ni nanoparticles deposited on their surface (see figure) are shown to be very effective for hydrodesulfurization of thiophene and thiophene derivatives at relatively low temperatures, providing a new way of eliminating sulfur pollution and thus enabling the highly efficient and clean utilization of organosulfur compounds.

    10. Smectic Liquid-Crystalline Order in Suspensions of Highly Polydisperse Goethite Nanorods (pages 2565–2568)

      G. J. Vroege, D. M. E. Thies-Weesie, A. V. Petukhov, B. J. Lemaire and P. Davidson

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601112

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optical Bragg reflections and small-angle X-ray scattering (see figure) reveal that dispersions of Goethite (FeOOH) nanorods spontaneously form layered (smectic A) structures, although their 55 % length polydispersity exceeds the theoretical limit by a factor of three. Here, sedimentation and size partitioning contribute to a very rich phase behavior including nematic and columnar phases. This suggests the application of the self-organizing tendencies of such mineral liquid crystals to obtain materials with very diverse nanostructures.

    11. Synthesis and Assembly of Monodisperse High-Coercivity Silica-Capped FePt Nanomagnets of Tunable Size, Composition, and Thermal Stability from Microemulsions (pages 2569–2573)

      Q. Yan, A. Purkayastha, T. Kim, R. Kröger, A. Bose and G. Ramanath

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502607

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A microemulsion approach to obtain high-coercivity (850 mT) FePt nanomagnets capped with a nanoscopic silica shell is reported (see figure). This versatile method allows the easy tuning of particle size and composition. The silica shell inhibits agglomeration and preserves the chemical stability of the particles up to 650 °C, and facilitates surface functionalization and particle assembly. These attributes are attractive for harnessing the nanomagnets for realizing novel devices and composites.

    12. Engineering of Small Molecule Organogels by Design of the Nanometer Structure of Fiber Networks (pages 2574–2578)

      J. L. Li, X. Y. Liu, C. S. Strom and J. Y. Xiong

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200500694

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The nanostructure of fiber networks of two small-molecule organogels is engineered based on a nucleation-growth fiber network formation mechanism. It is shown that the presence of a surface-active additive can improve the elasticity of the gels by enhancing branching of the fibers (see figure).

    13. All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 Hybrid Solar Cells with High Energy-Conversion Efficiency (pages 2579–2582)

      E. Lancelle-Beltran, P. Prené, C. Boscher, P. Belleville, P. Buvat and C. Sanchez

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Homogeneous nanoporous TiO2 films with controlled architecture, porosity, and layer thickness (see figure) have been prepared by the sol–gel methodology to optimize the efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Using regioregular poly(3-octylthiophene) as a hole conductor, a high solar-conversion efficiency associated with excellent stability under light and air exposure has been achieved.

    14. Au-Induced Encapsulation of Ge Nanowires in Protective C Shells (pages 2583–2588)

      E. Sutter and P. Sutter

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600624

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In situ annealing experiments (in the temperature range between room temperature and 400 °C) in a transmission electron microscope show that Ge nanowires can be encapsulated in graphitic C shells in the presence of C (see figure) if the wire surface is decorated with small amounts of Au. The C shells are demonstrated to provide a protective barrier against nanowire oxidation even after prolonged exposure to ambient conditions.

    15. Frictional Properties of Confined Nanorods (pages 2589–2592)

      M. Akbulut, N. Belman, Y. Golan and J. Israelachvili

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600794

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surfactant-coated nanorods, rather than bare spheres, can provide both low friction and good surface wear protection (see figure) when used as additives in fluids that are not good lubricants on their own. A combination of nanoparticle geometry, nanoparticle forces, and dynamic properties appears to be responsible for the improved lubrication.

    16. Templated Fabrication of Nanowire and Nanoring Arrays Based on Interference Lithography and Electrochemical Deposition (pages 2593–2596)

      R. Ji, W. Lee, R. Scholz, U. Gösele and K. Nielsch

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601136

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Periodic photoresist patterns have been fabricated by laser interference lithography over a wafer-scale area. The structures are used as an etching mask for the subsequent reactive-ion etching of the underlying Si3N4 layer and etched about 9 nm into the highly doped Si substrate. Au nanowire or nanoring arrays have been prepared by selective electrochemical deposition on the step edges of the Si3N4 structures (see figure and cover).

    17. TiO2(B) Nanowires as an Improved Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries Containing LiFePO4 or LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathodes and a Polymer Electrolyte (pages 2597–2600)

      G. Armstrong, A. R. Armstrong, P. G. Bruce, P. Reale and B. Scrosati

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601232

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been constructed with a TiO2(B) nanowire anode, a gel electrolyte, and either a LiFePO4 or LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. Cycling stability is very good as is rate capability (see figure), with 80% of the low-rate capacity being retained at C/5.

    18. Improved SAPO-34 Membranes for CO2/CH4 Separations (pages 2601–2603)

      S. Li, J. L. Falconer and R. D. Noble

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601147

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A SAPO-34 membrane, prepared by seeding SAPO crystals, has a CO2/CH4 separation selectively of 115 and a CO2 permeance of 4.0 × 10-7 mol m–2 s–1 Pa–1. SAPO-34 membranes separate CO2/CH4 mixtures at a feed pressure of 7 MPa.

    19. Controlled Synthesis of Bismuth Oxide Nanowires by an Oxidative Metal Vapor Transport Deposition Technique (pages 2604–2608)

      Y. Qiu, D. Liu, J. Yang and S. Yang

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600654

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An oxidative metal vapor transport deposition technique is used for the synthesis of ultrathin β-Bi2O3 nanowires, which exploits spatial-temporal separation of Bi evaporation, vapor transport, droplet formation, and oxidative nucleation and growth. The nanowires grow via a self-catalyzed, reaction-coupled vapor–liquid–solid route, with potential for the general synthesis of metal oxide nanowires.

    20. Optimized LiFePO4–Polyacene Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 2609–2613)

      H.-M. Xie, R.-S. Wang, J.-R. Ying, L.-Y. Zhang, A. F. Jalbout, H.-Y. Yu, G.-L. Yang, X.-M. Pan and Z.-M. Su

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600578

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel core/shell compound has been developed by coating a spherical LiFePO4 structure with a specific π-bond character planar polymer (polyacene, PAS). The electronic conductivity, low-temperature character, and tap density of the LiFePO4–PAS composite were significantly improved compared to LiFePO4, which may lead to use in lithium-ion battery applications.

    21. A Combinatorial Library of Photocrosslinkable and Degradable Materials (pages 2614–2618)

      D. G. Anderson, C. A. Tweedie, N. Hossain, S. M. Navarro, D. M. Brey, K. J. Van Vliet, R. Langer and J. A. Burdick

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600529

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A library of acrylate-terminated poly(β-amino ester)s is synthesized in parallel (see figure and inside cover) via a condensation reaction that combines primary or secondary amines with diacrylates. This library of macromers is then photopolymerized to form networks with a wide range of degradation and mechanical properties. Because of the diversity in properties, these polymers could be developed and screened for numerous applications ranging from microdevices to biomaterials.

    22. Ordered Whiskerlike Polyaniline Grown on the Surface of Mesoporous Carbon and Its Electrochemical Capacitance Performance (pages 2619–2623)

      Y.-G. Wang, H.-Q. Li and Y.-Y. Xia

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600445

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Supercapacitor electrode materials must exhibit high specific capacitance and high-rate charge–discharge ability. The ordered whiskerlike polyaniline (PANI) reported here, which was synthesized in situ on the surface of mesoporous carbon by a novel process, is demonstrated to have these properties thanks to its ordered nanometer-sized “thorns” (see figure) and the V-shaped nanopores between them.

    23. Controlling Tack with Bicomponent Polymer Brushes (pages 2624–2628)

      H. Retsos, A. Kiriy, V. Senkovskyy, M. Stamm, M. M. Feldstein and C. Creton

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600315

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Taking advantage of the surface modification that a selective solvent can induce in a glassy polystyrene–poly(2-vinylpyridine) binary brush layer, a methodology is demonstrated for reversibly tuning the tackiness of a hydrophilic, pressure-sensitive adhesive against that surface. The significant and fully reversible alteration in adhesion has been observed even for brushes with fairly low poly(2-vinylpyridine) content (see figure).

    24. First Example of a Third-Generation Liquid-Crystalline Carbosilane Dendrimer with Peripheral Bent-Core Mesogenic Units: Understanding of “Dark Conglomerate Phases” (pages 2629–2633)

      H. Hahn, C. Keith, H. Lang, R. Amaranatha Reddy and C. Tschierske

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600161

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An optically isotropic, polar smectic C phase composed of chiral and achiral domains, which shows antiferroelectric switching, is demonstrated to be exhibited by the third-generation liquid-crystalline dendrimer with peripheral bent-core (BC) mesogenic units (see figure) reported here. This investigation contributes to an understanding of the origin of chirality and layer distortion in the dark conglomerate banana phases.

    25. Formation of Single Pt Atoms on Thiolated Carbon Nanotubes Using a Moderate and Large-Scale Chemical Approach (pages 2634–2638)

      Y.-T. Kim, T. Uruga and T. Mitani

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single Pt atoms are formed on thiolated carbon nanotubes (see figure) by using a moderate and large-scale chemical approach instead of conventional physical methods that require severe conditions. The surface modification results from the formation of bonds between Pt and surface thiol groups by weak physisorption. Furthermore, the electronic state of single Pt atoms is close to that of bulk Pt rather than the precursor ion.

      Corrected by:

      Apology: Formation of Single Pt Atoms on Thiolated Carbon Nanotubes Using a Moderate and Large-Scale Chemical Approach

      Vol. 18, Issue 22, 2931, Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2006

    26. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Glucose/O2 Biofuel Cells (pages 2639–2643)

      Y. Yan, W. Zheng, L. Su and L. Mao

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600028

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based enzymatic glucose/O2biofuel cell with a high voltage is demonstrated. The fuel cell uses glucose dehydrogenase as the anode biocatalyst for the oxidation of glucose, and laccase as the cathode biocatalyst for the reduction of O2 (see figure). The SWNTs are used as electrode materials, as a support for electrocatalysts and biocatalysts, and for facilitating the direct electron transfer of laccase.

  7. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Index

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