Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 22

November, 2006

Volume 18, Issue 22

Pages 2923–3048

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Light-Emitting Organic Solar Cells Based on a 3D Conjugated System with Internal Charge Transfer (Adv. Mater. 22/2006)

      A. Cravino, P. Leriche, O. Alévêque, S. Roquet and J. Roncali

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690093

      Simple single-layered diodes based on a glass-forming triphenylamine-thienylenevinylene with internal charge transfer show a photovoltaic effect in solar light and red electroluminescence when forward biased (see figure and cover). The use of an additional layer of C60 as electron acceptor improves the photovoltaic performance without affecting the electroluminescence.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Preparation of Porous Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Honeycomb Materials with Hierarchal Surface Features and Their Use as Soft-Lithography Templates (Adv. Mater. 22/2006)

      L. A. Connal and G. G. Qiao

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690095

      Ordered hierarchal porous materials made via the “breath figure” technique are prepared from solutions of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based star polymers. The successful formation of regular porous materials on ordered nonflat substrates (see figure and inside cover) is described. The materials are used as soft lithography masters to produce a variety of exotic structures. Potential applications of the technique includes the preparation of substrates for cellular growth or photonic materials.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 22/2006 (pages 2923–2931)

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690090

  4. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      High Photovoltaic Performance of a Low-Bandgap Polymer (page 2931)

      D. Mühlbacher, M. Scharber, M. Morana, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana and C. Brabec

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690091

      This article corrects:

      High Photovoltaic Performance of a Low-Bandgap Polymer

      Vol. 18, Issue 21, 2884–2889, Article first published online: 10 OCT 2006

  5. Apology

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Formation of Single Pt Atoms on Thiolated Carbon Nanotubes Using a Moderate and Large-Scale Chemical Approach (page 2931)

      Y.-T. Kim, T. Uruga and T. Mitani

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690094

      This article corrects:

      Formation of Single Pt Atoms on Thiolated Carbon Nanotubes Using a Moderate and Large-Scale Chemical Approach1

      Vol. 18, Issue 19, 2634–2638, Article first published online: 14 SEP 2006

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. Recent Advances in New Hard High-Pressure Nitrides (pages 2933–2948)

      A. Zerr, R. Riedel, T. Sekine, J. E. Lowther, W. Y. Ching and I. Tanaka

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501872

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spinel nitrides have attracted great interest because of their exceptional hardness and thermochemical stability–suggesting structural and machining applications–as well as for their promising optoelectronic properties. Advances in the high-pressure synthesis (as shown in the figure), characterization, and applications of binary, ternary, and quaternary spinel nitrides of the main group elements are reviewed, as well as binary high-pressure nitrides of transition metals.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. Simultaneously Increasing the Ductility and Strength of Ultra-Fine-Grained Pure Copper (pages 2949–2953)

      Y.-H. Zhao, J. F. Bingert, X.-Z. Liao, B.-Z. Cui, K. Han, A. V. Sergueeva, A. K. Mukherjee, R. Z. Valiev, T. G. Langdon and Y. T. Zhu

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601472

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Simultaneous increase of the ductility and strength of bulk ultra-fine-grained (UFG) Cu is achieved by introducing large amounts of deformation twins and high-angle grain boundaries via cryodrawing and cryorolling (red plots and image). Bulk UFG materials usually have high strength but disappointingly low ductility. Most previous attempts to enhance the ductility of single-phased UFG materials sacrificed their yield strength. This work provides a new approach for increasing ductility without sacrificing strength.

    2. Selectivity of Single-Molecule Dynamics in 2D Molecular Sieves (pages 2954–2957)

      G. Schull, L. Douillard, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, F. Charra, F. Mathevet, D. Kreher and A.-J. Attias

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600683

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A nanoengineered surface able to grab selected molecules and further sort them according to their size and shape by diffusion through surface molecular sieves is realized. It consists of a customized self-assembled network of supramolecular cavities linked by channels. The comparison of the temperature-dependent hopping dynamics of various guest molecules (arrows in figure indicate their hopping between neighboring cavities; figure width: 7.7 nm) reveals the physical mechanisms of the involved processes.

    3. Molecularly Protected Bismuth Telluride Nanoparticles: Microemulsion Synthesis and Thermoelectric Transport Properties (pages 2958–2963)

      A. Purkayastha, S. Kim, D. D. Gandhi, P. G. Ganesan, T. Borca-Tasciuc and G. Ramanath

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600495

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A room-temperature microemulsion synthesis of molecularly capped bismuth telluride nanoparticles with small (average ca. 2.5 nm) diameters is reported (see figure). The use of thioglycolic acid ligands inhibits nanoparticle agglomeration and surface oxidation. Annealing the nanoparticle films to 350 ° C yields a Seebeck coefficient of  – 107 μV K–1. The findings are attractive for realizing of high figure of merit thermoelectric materials via nanostructuring control over surface chemistry.

    4. Shrinkage Precompensation of Holographic Three-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal Templates (pages 2964–2968)

      D. C. Meisel, M. Diem, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, K. Busch and M. Wegener

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600412

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Anisotropic shrinkage of holographic 3D photonic crystals is quantified and precompensated by exposure to an appropriately spatially stretched interference pattern. The resulting simple-cubic overall symmetry is validated by means of focused-ion-beam cuts (see figure), optical transmission measurements, and comparison with theory.

    5. Cationic Supramolecules Composed of Multiple Oligoethylenimine-Grafted β-Cyclodextrins Threaded on a Polymer Chain for Efficient Gene Delivery (pages 2969–2974)

      J. Li, C. Yang, H. Li, X. Wang, S. H. Goh, J. L. Ding, D. Y. Wang and K. W. Leong

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600812

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cationic supramolecules composed of multiple oligoethylenimine-grafted β-cyclodextrins that are threaded and blocked on a triblock copolymer chain (see figure) are synthesized as gene-delivery vectors. The supramolecules contain many cationic cyclic units threaded on a polymer chain to form an integrated entity, functioning as a macromolecular gene vector with good DNA binding ability, low cytotoxicity, and high gene-transfection efficiency.

    6. Stimulation of Neural Cells by Lateral Currents in Conductive Layer-by-Layer Films of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2975–2979)

      M. K. Gheith, T. C. Pappas, A. V. Liopo, V. A. Sinani, B. S. Shim, M. Motamedi, J. P. Wicksted and N. A. Kotov

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600878

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The first example of neural stimulation through a SWNT material assembled by layer-by-layer deposition is described (see figure). Excitation by lateral currents in the nanotube coating results in the opening of voltage-dependent Na+ ion channels. The experimental observations indicate the possibility of engineering of implantable biomedical devices from SWNT/polymer multilayers to be used for neuron prosthesis, pain management, and muscle stimulation.

    7. Transparent Conducting Films of Indium Tin Oxide with 3D Mesopore Architecture (pages 2980–2983)

      D. Fattakhova-Rohlfing, T. Brezesinski, J. Rathouský, A. Feldhoff, T. Oekermann, M. Wark and B. M. Smarsly

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601224

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transparent, conductive, ordered mesoporous films of indium tin oxide (ITO) are obtained by evaporation-induced self-assembly followed by heating, using a novel block-copolymer template (see figure). The combination of conductivity and accessible porosity offers high potential for novel applications.

    8. Size-Dependent Chemical and Magnetic Ordering in L10-FePt Nanoparticles (pages 2984–2988)

      C.-b. Rong, D. Li, V. Nandwana, N. Poudyal, Y. Ding, Z. L. Wang, H. Zeng and J. P. Liu

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601904

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Direct evidence for size-dependent chemical and magnetic ordering in L10-FePt nanoparticles is obtained by measuring monodisperse nanoparticles prepared by the “salt-matrix annealing” technique. Quantitative correlations show that the long-range chemical-ordering parameter, Curie temperature (see figure), and saturated magnetization drop significantly with decreasing particle size.

    9. High-Performance Organic Semiconductors Based on Fluorene–Phenylene Oligomers with High Ionization Potentials (pages 2989–2992)

      J. Locklin, M. M. Ling, A. Sung, M. E. Roberts and Z. Bao

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601608

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A series of phenylene–fluorene derivatives (see figure) are synthesized and evaluated for use in organic field-effect transistors. Average field-effect mobilities as high as 0.32 cm2 V–1 s–1 are achieved by vacuum deposition at low substrate temperatures. The high ionization potentials in the derivatives lead to improved chemical and photostability. Transistor devices show no loss in performance when tested over a period of three months.

    10. Synthesis of Fullerene-like Cs2O Nanoparticles by Concentrated Sunlight (pages 2993–2996)

      A. Albu-Yaron, T. Arad, M. Levy, R. Popovitz-Biro, R. Tenne, J. M. Gordon, D. Feuermann, E. A. Katz, M. Jansen and C. Mühle

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600983

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Application of a solar-driven synthesis approach for the production of fullerene-like Cs2O nanoparticles is presented (see figure). The synthesis is performed directly in evacuated quartz ampoules containing a Cs2O crystallite precursor under continuous irradiation with highly concentrated sunlight. Closed-cage nested Cs2O structures are obtained in a variety of shapes and dimensions. These structures are rather stable, a significant advantage for photoemissive applications involving Cs2O coatings.

    11. One-Pot Synthesis of Poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphenol) Nanotubes via an In Situ Template Approach (pages 2997–3000)

      L. Zhu, Y. Xu, W. Yuan, J. Xi, X. Huang, X. Tang and S. Zheng

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600562

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Templated synthesis of poly(cyclotriphosphaze-co-4,4′-sulfonyldiphenol) nanotubes (see figure) via a one-pot approach was achieved by the in situ formation of triethylammonium chloride nanocrystals during the polymerization. The triethylammonium chloride templates can eventually be removed by washing with water. The dimensions of the nanotubes can be controlled by modification of the experimental conditions.

    12. Enhanced Aldol Reaction Using an Aldolase I Antibody Immobilized in 3D Mesoporous Silica Foam (pages 3001–3004)

      S. Seelan, A. K. Sinha, K. Kato and Y. Yokogawa

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502644

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      3D foamlike mesoporous silica with ca. 16 nm pore size (see figure) has been used to immobilize aldolase antibody 84G3. This immobilization results in significantly accelerated and stable aldol reactions at similar selectivities (>98 % ee) compared to those of the free antibody.

    13. A Mechanism for the Fast Ionic Transport in Nanostructured Oxide-Ion Solid Electrolytes (pages 3005–3009)

      M. G. Bellino, D. G. Lamas and N. E. Walsöe de Reca

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600303

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ionic transport in nanostructured solid electrolytes is investigated using an atomistic model that clarifies the enhanced conductivity (see figure) of these materials. It is based on the fast diffusion of free oxygen vacancies through the grain boundaries. A transition observed in the ionic conductivity of the nanoceramics as a function of temperature, caused by a change in the transport mechanism, is also explained.

    14. In Situ Patterning of Organic Single-Crystalline Nanoribbons on a SiO2 Surface for the Fabrication of Various Architectures and High-Quality Transistors (pages 3010–3014)

      Q. Tang, H. Li, Y. Song, W. Xu, W. Hu, L. Jiang, Y. Liu, X. Wang and D. Zhu

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600542

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic single-crystalline nanoribbons are fabricated through an in situ patterning technique to yield various architectures. Organic field-effect transistors based on such patterned nanoribbons (see figure) are shown to exhibit low threshold voltages and high carrier mobilities. This in situ patterning technique overcomes the general disadvantages of the handpicking process for the fabrication of organic single-crystal devices and opens up a new route for the fabrication of architectures and devices using nanocrystals.

    15. Topography Mediated Patterning of Inorganic Materials by Spray Pyrolysis (pages 3015–3018)

      D. Beckel, D. Briand, A. R. Studart, N. F. de Rooij and L. J. Gauckler

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600718

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microstructured ceramic thin films are produced by spray pyrolysis of metal salt solutions onto micromachined substrates. The ceramic structures built on the substrate result from preferential assembly of particles on the edge of the initially micromachined structures, leading to smaller lateral dimensions (1–2 μm in width) than the initial structures on the substrate (see figure). The assembly process amplifies the height of the initial structures by a factor of approximately thirty, resulting in features with an aspect ratio of three.

    16. Single-Crystalline AlGaN:Mn Nanotubes and Their Magnetism (pages 3019–3023)

      H.-K. Seong, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, Y.-K. Byeun, K.-S. Han, J.-G. Park and H.-J. Choi

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600933

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-crystalline AlGaN:Mn nanotubes (see figure) with a an outer diameter less than 200 nm and a length of a few micrometers are prepared by a chloride-based chemical vapor deposition process. The nanotubes exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism without evidence of a ferromagnetic transition, showing that the structural and compositional modulation of 1D nanostructures could open up a way of exploring new classes of diluted magnetic semiconductors.

    17. Preparation of Porous Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Honeycomb Materials with Hierarchal Surface Features and Their Use as Soft-Lithography Templates (pages 3024–3028)

      L. A. Connal and G. G. Qiao

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600982

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ordered hierarchal porous materials made via the “breath figure” technique are prepared from solutions of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based star polymers. The successful formation of regular porous materials on ordered nonflat substrates (see figure and inside cover) is described. The materials are used as soft lithography masters to produce a variety of exotic structures. Potential applications of the technique includes the preparation of substrates for cellular growth or photonic materials.

    18. Poly(2,5-bis(2-thienyl)-3,6-dialkylthieno [3,2-b]thiophene)s—High-Mobility Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistors (pages 3029–3032)

      Y. Li, Y. Wu, P. Liu, M. Birau, H. Pan and B. S. Ong

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601204

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Field-effect transistor properties, structural design, synthesis, and characterization of the poly(2,5-bis(2-thienyl)-3,6-dialkylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene) thin-film semiconductors shown in the figure are described. Using low-temperature solution fabrication of channel semiconductors under ambient conditions, a mobility of 0.25 cm2 V–1 s–1 and a current on/off ratio of 107 are obtained.

    19. Light-Emitting Organic Solar Cells Based on a 3D Conjugated System with Internal Charge Transfer (pages 3033–3037)

      A. Cravino, P. Leriche, O. Alévêque, S. Roquet and J. Roncali

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601230

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Simple single-layered diodes based on a glass-forming triphenylamine-thienylenevinylene with internal charge transfer show a photovoltaic effect in solar light and red electroluminescence when forward biased (see figure and cover). The use of an additional layer of C60 as electron acceptor improves the photovoltaic performance without affecting the electroluminescence.

    20. Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-optic Activities from Diels–Alder Crosslinkable Polymers Containing Binary Chromophore Systems (pages 3038–3042)

      T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, J.-W. Ka, S. Hau, Y. Tian, Z. Shi, N. M. Tucker, S.-H. Jang, J.-W. Kang and A. K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601582

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The dispersion of an efficient secondary chromophore into in situ crosslinked nonlinear optical polymer networks is described. The secondary chromophore leads to both enhanced electro-optical (EO) activity (> 260 pm V–1 at 1.31 μm) and alignment stability at 85 °C. Analysis of the EO properties shows exceptional poling efficiency of these binary systems at high chromophore loading levels, in contrast to experimental results obtained from single-chromophore polymers.

  8. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index
    1. Using Enzymes to Control Molecular Hydrogelation (pages 3043–3046)

      Z. Yang and B. Xu

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600400

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Enzymes dictate a myriad of reactions that constitute various cascades in biological systems. Using an enzymatic reaction to convert a precursor into a hydrogelator or vice versa, one can control the delivery, functions, and responses of a hydrogel according to a specific biological condition or environment (see figure), thus providing an accessible route to creating sophisticated soft materials for biomedicine.

  9. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Apology
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Research News
    10. Index

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