Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 24

December, 2006

Volume 18, Issue 24

Pages 3191–3388

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
    1. Cover Picture: Fabricating Microlens Arrays by Surface Wrinkling (Adv. Mater. 24/2006)

      E. P. Chan and A. J. Crosby

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690104

      A new approach to fabricating microlens arrays (see figure and cover) based on the confinement of surface wrinkles on a soft polymer surface is presented. The dimensions and the arrangement of the microlenses are controlled by the degree of lateral confinement and the material properties of the wrinkled regions. This approach allows for the nonplanar patterning of a polymer surface with a microlens array to form a biomimetic compound lens.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Construction of Chiral Propeller Architectures from Achiral Molecules (Adv. Mater. 24/2006)

      K.-U. Jeong, D.-K. Yang, M. J. Graham, Y. Tu, S.-W. Kuo, B. S. Knapp, F. W. Harris and S. Z. D. Cheng

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690106

      Chiral propeller architectures (see figure and inside cover) are constructed from achiral molecules via hydrogen bonding self-assembly in addition to Frank–Pryce spherulitic droplet and fingerprint textures. It is found, for the first time, that neither molecular chirality nor a molecular bend is necessary to form a chiral phase. This is of particular interest to the next generation of biological and electro-optical advances in materials science and technology.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
  4. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Unveiling the Sliding Motion in Topological Networks: Influence of the Swelling Solvent on the Relaxation Dynamics (page 3199)

      G. Fleury, G. Schlatter, C. Brochon and G. Hadziioannou

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690100

      This article corrects:
    2. You have free access to this content
      Synthesis of Fullerene-like Cs2O Nanoparticles by Concentrated Sunlight (page 3199)

      A. Albu-Yaron, T. Arad, M. Levy, R. Popovitz-Biro, R. Tenne, J. M. Gordon, D. Feuermann, E. A. Katz, M. Jansen and C. Mühle

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200690105

      This article corrects:

      Synthesis of Fullerene-like Cs2O Nanoparticles by Concentrated Sunlight1

      Vol. 18, Issue 22, 2993–2996, Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2006

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
    1. Biomedical Applications of Layer-by-Layer Assembly: From Biomimetics to Tissue Engineering (pages 3203–3224)

      Z. Tang, Y. Wang, P. Podsiadlo and N. A. Kotov

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600113

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Layer-by-layer assembly is becoming more and more important in the biomedical field. This Review surveys current research and discusses prospects for the varied potential biomedical applications of nanostructures fabricated by this method. The image shows the lateral structure of artificial nacre, an organic–inorganic composite, prepared using the layer-by-layer technique.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
    1. Reversible Fluorescence Wavelength Shift Based on Photoinduced Aggregate Formation (pages 3225–3228)

      T. Fukaminato and M. Irie

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601222

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A fluorescent diarylethene derivative that links to a perylene bisimide unit is synthesized and its photochromic and fluorescence properties are studied. Aggregate formation was controlled by the photochromic reaction of the diarylethene unit, and aggregate formation induced a fluorescence wavelength shift between green and red, as shown in the figure.

    2. Construction of Chiral Propeller Architectures from Achiral Molecules (pages 3229–3232)

      K.-U. Jeong, D.-K. Yang, M. J. Graham, Y. Tu, S.-W. Kuo, B. S. Knapp, F. W. Harris and S. Z. D. Cheng

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601338

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chiral propeller architectures (see figure and inside cover) are constructed from achiral molecules via hydrogen bonding self-assembly in addition to Frank–Pryce spherulitic droplet and fingerprint textures. It is found, for the first time, that neither molecular chirality nor a molecular bend is necessary to form a chiral phase. This is of particular interest to the next generation of biological and electro-optical advances in materials science and technology.

    3. Synthesis and SERS Properties of Nanocrystalline Gold Octahedra Generated from Thermal Decomposition of HAuCl4 in Block Copolymers (pages 3233–3237)

      J. Zhang, Y. Gao, R. A. Alvarez-Puebla, J. M. Buriak and H. Fenniri

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601368

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Octahedral nanoparticles of gold are prepared via a short thermal decomposition of auric acid loaded polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer solutions. Thermal treatment of a monolayer of HAuCl4-loaded block copolymers on silicon leads to quantitative Au0 production, of which > 70 % is in the form of sub-100 nm gold octahedra (see figure). The as-synthesized arrays of gold nanoparticles are highly active for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    4. Fabricating Microlens Arrays by Surface Wrinkling (pages 3238–3242)

      E. P. Chan and A. J. Crosby

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601595

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new approach to fabricating microlens arrays (see figure and cover) based on the confinement of surface wrinkles on a soft polymer surface is presented. The dimensions and the arrangement of the microlenses are controlled by the degree of lateral confinement and the material properties of the wrinkled regions. This approach allows for the nonplanar patterning of a polymer surface with a microlens array to form a biomimetic compound lens.

    5. Crystal Growth and Characterization of the Model High-Temperature Superconductor HgBa2CuO4+δ (pages 3243–3247)

      X. Zhao, G. Yu, Y.-C. Cho, G. Chabot-Couture, N. Barišić, P. Bourges, N. Kaneko, Y. Li, L. Lu, E. M. Motoyama, O. P. Vajk and M. Greven

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600931

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Large, gram-sized single crystals (see figure) of the model high-temperature superconductor HgBa2CuO4+δ are obtained and characterized. The results demonstrate the high quality of the obtained crystals and the feasibility of inelastic neutron scattering measurements.

    6. Manipulating Assemblies of High-Aspect-Ratio Clays and Fatty Amine Salts to Form Surfaces Exhibiting a Lotus Effect (pages 3248–3252)

      J.-J. Lin, C.-C. Chu, M.-L. Chiang and W.-C. Tsai

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600948

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A superhydrophobic surface exhibiting a water-droplet contact angle of ca. 157° (see figure left) is generated from the self assembly of nanoscale clay platelets with attached fatty amine chains. The anionic high-aspect-ratio platelets self-align upon modification with the alkyl organics to form rough surfaces exhibiting the lotus-leaf effect. The right-hand figure shows the fractal surface with micrometer-scale roughness defined by the platelet building blocks.

    7. A Parallel Optical Screen for the Rapid Combinatorial Electrochromic Analysis of Electrochemical Materials (pages 3253–3257)

      K. M. Brace, B. E. Hayden, A. E. Russell and J. R. Owen

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600786

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-throughput optical screen designed to reduce costs and accelerate the screening of libraries of electroactive materials, in particular fuel-cell electrocatalysts and battery materials, is presented. The methodology uses an electrochromic film as a counter electrode, and makes use of spatially varying color change across this screening counter electrode as differing amounts of charge are passed across the array during a test reaction (see figure).

    8. Combining Conventional Lithography with Molecular Self-Assembly for Chemical Patterning (pages 3258–3260)

      M. E. Anderson, C. Srinivasan, J. N. Hohman, E. M. Carter, M. W. Horn and P. S. Weiss

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601258

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An innovative method to obtain chemical patterns with tailored functionality and directed alignment is described (see figure). The patterns are generated by employing lithographic processing, which is compatible with molecular self-assembly and capable of withstanding photo-oxidation. The robust lithographic resist protects against cross- contamination, permitting several self-assembled monolayers terminated with different functional groups to be patterned.

    9. Synthesis of b-Oriented TS-1 Films on Chitosan-Modified α-Al2O3 Substrates (pages 3261–3265)

      X. D. Wang, B. Q. Zhang, X. F. Liu and J. Y. S. Lin

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502772

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The controllable orientation of TS-1 crystals on a porous alumina substrate is achieved by using a thin chitosan film as a structure-directing matrix. A single layer of TS-1 crystal grains is fully b-oriented. The crystal grains in a multilayer TS-1 film are preferentially b-oriented (ca. 70%) according to XRD and pole figure analyses (see figure). The obtained membrane shows strong selectivity in an oxidation-catalysis experiment.

    10. A Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL)-Mediated, Non-Hydrolytic Sol–Gel Methodology to Prepare Molecularly Imprinted, Silica-Based Hybrid Monoliths for Chiral Separation (pages 3266–3270)

      H.-F. Wang, Y.-Z. Zhu, X.-P. Yan, R.-Y. Gao and J.-Y. Zheng

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silica-based hybrid molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monoliths with good chiral recognition ability are synthesized (see figure) using a novel method, a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-mediated, non-hydrolytic sol–gel technique. The approach avoids the cracking and shrinking of the bed during drying, which is commonly associated with conventional sol–gel processing, overcomes the shortcomings associated with conventional organic-polymer-based MIP matrices, and offers improved selectivity.

    11. Pd-Catalyzed Growth of Pt Nanoparticles or Nanowires as Dense Coatings on Polymeric and Ceramic Particulate Supports (pages 3271–3274)

      E. P. Lee, J. Chen, Y. Yin, C. T. Campbell and Y. Xia

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601070

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Platinum nanowire or nanoparticle shells on different cores are selectively obtained by controlling the experimental conditions. Palladium-coated polymeric or ceramic cores are used as substrates to form shells of sub-monolayer or multilayer coatings of Pt nanoparticles or dense coatings of quasiradial Pt nanowires (see figure). Characterization of the morphology of the obtained structures confirms that the amount of iron species added during the synthesis controls the structure of the products.

    12. Aligned Ultralong ZnO Nanobelts and Their Enhanced Field Emission (pages 3275–3278)

      W. Z. Wang, B. Q. Zeng, J. Yang, B. Poudel, J. Y. Huang, M. J. Naughton and Z. F. Ren

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601274

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Aligned ultralong ZnO nanobelts with an average length of 3.3 mm and widths up to 6 μm (see figure) are synthesized on a metal substrate through a one-step process. The nanobelts obtained from this molten-salt-assisted thermal evaporation route show an emission current density of 1 mA cm–2 at an electric field of 2.9 V μm–1, resulting from their high field-enhancement factor (1.4 × 104).

    13. Single-Electron Transfer in Nanoparticle Solids (pages 3279–3283)

      S. Pradhan, J. Sun, F. Deng and S. Chen

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601552

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-electron transfer across an alkanethiolate-protected Au nanoparticle monolayer is observed (see figure) through deliberate control of the nanoparticle structure, interparticle interactions, and temperature. The system is analogous to the Coulomb-staircase phenomenon seen in STM-based measurements of individual particles.

    14. Budded, Mesoporous Silica Hollow Spheres: Hierarchical Structure Controlled by Kinetic Self-Assembly (pages 3284–3288)

      J. Wang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhou, P. Sun, Z. Yuan, B. Li, D. Ding, A.-C. Shi and T. Chen

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601321

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel, hierarchical morphology of budded mesoporous silica hollow spheres (see figure), comprising a wormholelike mesoporous shell and protruding lamellar (vesicular) mesostructured buds, is fabricated by a unique, single-step, emulsion-templating method in which the sodium salt of N-lauroylsarcosine is used as both a surfactant and an oil phase after acidification.

    15. Synthesis of Magnetic Microspheres with Immobilized Metal Ions for Enrichment and Direct Determination of Phosphopeptides by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (pages 3289–3293)

      X. Xu, C. Deng, M. Gao, W. Yu, P. Yang and X. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601546

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Core/shell structured magnetic silica microspheres with immobilized Fe3+ (see image) are prepared with a simple method. Using a magnetic field, the microspheres are quickly, efficiently, and specifically enriched. Phosphopeptide identification can then be achieved through mass spectroscopy. This is a new method for the enrichment of phosphopeptides and opens up the possibility of other new applications using the microspheres.

    16. Crosslinked Bicontinuous Cubic Lyotropic Liquid-Crystal/Butyl-Rubber Composites: Highly Selective, Breathable Barrier Materials for Chemical Agent Protection (pages 3294–3298)

      X. Lu, V. Nguyen, M. Zhou, X. Zeng, J. Jin, B. J. Elliott and D. L. Gin

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601156

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A breathable material that can act as a barrier to chemical agents is presented. The material is composed of butyl rubber and a crosslinkable lyotropic liquid crystal. Under the right synthesis conditions, a cubic phase with the desired selectivity properties results (see figure). The material is highly permeable to water vapor, but strongly impermeable to a mustard gas simulant. Application of the material for effective personal protection against such chemical agents is envisaged.

    17. Confined Assembly in Coaxially Electrospun Block Copolymer Fibers (pages 3299–3303)

      V. Kalra, S. Mendez, J. H. Lee, H. Nguyen, M. Marquez and Y. L. Joo

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601948

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The evolution of polystyrene–polyisoprene block copolymer self-assembly is studied in coaxially electrospun nanofibers via annealing. The leftmost image shows the cross-sectional and longitudinal sections of as-spun fibers. Moving to the right, a transition of morphology can be seen from stacked disk structures for lower annealing temperatures to alternating concentric cylinders of polyisoprene and polystyrene for higher annealing temperatures and times.

    18. Observation of Hydride Mobility in the Transition-Metal Oxide Hydride LaSrCoO3H0.7 (pages 3304–3308)

      C. A. Bridges, F. Fernandez-Alonso, J. P. Goff and M. J. Rosseinsky

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601266

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The diffusion of hydride anions in LaSrCoO3H0.7 is measured for the first time. High-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) data reveals the onset of mobility above 675 K, associated with hopping between vacant sites in the hydride anion sublattice (see figure). The temperature range at which hopping takes place is similar to the temperature used for the synthesis of the material, and is associated with loss of hydrogen gas from the sample.

    19. Fine Tuning of the Face Orientation of ZnO Crystals to Optimize Their Photocatalytic Activity (pages 3309–3312)

      E. S. Jang, J.-H. Won, S.-J. Hwang and J.-H. Choy

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601455

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Morphology-controlled nano- and microcrystals of ZnO (see figure) with different ratios of polar to nonpolar faces were synthesized through a soft-solution process. With these crystals, it is clearly demonstrated that a ZnO nanoplate with a large population of polar Zn(0001) faces is the most photocatalytically active morphology, underscoring the importance of the fine-tuning of face orientation in optimizing the activity of photocatalysts.

    20. Self-Organization and Nanoscale Electronic Properties of Azatriphenylene-Based Architectures: A Scanning Probe Microscopy Study (pages 3313–3317)

      M. Palma, J. Levin, V. Lemaur, A. Liscio, V. Palermo, J. Cornil, Y. Geerts, M. Lehmann and P. Samorì

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601437

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Probing the nanometer-scale electronic properties of π-conjugated supramolecular architectures as spatially confined electrically active nano-objects represents a great challenge. A scanning probe microscopy investigation of the structural organization and electronic properties of a specially designed and synthesized hydrogen-bonding azatriphenylene derivative (see figure) is described both at the single-molecule and ensemble level, supported by quantum-chemical calculations.

    21. Ba(Zr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2)O3–δ as an Electrolyte for Low-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 3318–3320)

      C. Zuo, S. Zha, M. Liu, M. Hatano and M. Uchiyama

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601366

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The applicability of the proton conductor Ba(Zr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2)O3–δ (BZCY7) as an electrolyte material for solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is investigated. The electrolyte material exhibits ionic conductivities (see figure) among the highest known for electrolytes viable for SOFC applications, and the chemical and thermal stability of BZCY7 appear adequate under a range of SOFC operating conditions. Several BZCY7-based single cells are fabricated using a modified dry-pressing method and show encouraging performance characteristics.

  7. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
    1. Responsive Polymers at the Biology/Materials Science Interface (pages 3321–3328)

      C. Alexander and K. M. Shakesheff

      Version of Record online: 23 NOV 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200502640

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Responsive polymers are increasingly of interest for medical applications owing to their dynamic and potentially biomimetic behavior. In this article two important applications of responsive polymers are considered; drug-delivery vehicles and surfaces for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (see figure). Highlights of significant recent research are considered and some potential future applications in this exciting field are introduced.

  8. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index
  9. Annual Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrections
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    10. Annual Index

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