Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 10

May, 2007

Volume 19, Issue 10

Pages 1299–1426

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Large-Area 3D Nanostructures with Octagonal Quasicrystalline Symmetry via Phase-Mask Lithography (Adv. Mater. 10/2007)

      I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith and E. L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790037

      3D nanostructured quasicrystalline materials significantly larger than feasible with previously reported techniques are produced. 2D quasiperiodic surface relief templates with 8mm point group symmetry are made by multiple-exposure interference lithography. Phase-mask lithography with corresponding PDMS masks produce bicontinuous 3D axial quasicrystal SU-8 structures (see figure).

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 10/2007 (pages 1299–1307)

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790034

  3. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      When Small Is Different: Some Recent Advances in Concepts and Applications of Nanoscale Phenomena (page 1307)

      G. Hodes

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790035

      This article corrects:

      When Small Is Different: Some Recent Advances in Concepts and Applications of Nanoscale Phenomena1

      Vol. 19, Issue 5, 639–655, Article first published online: 27 FEB 2007

  4. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Bionanocomposites: A New Concept of Ecological, Bioinspired, and Functional Hybrid Materials (pages 1309–1319)

      M. Darder, P. Aranda and E. Ruiz-Hitzky

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602328

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bionanocomposites are a new emerging class of hybrid nanostructured materials based on the synergistic assembly of natural polymers and nanometer-scale inorganic solids. They are promising materials for a wide number of advanced applications, being strongly related with biomineralization processes and biomimetic and bioinspired materials.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Nanolayer Patterning Based on Surface Modification with Extreme Ultraviolet Light (pages 1321–1324)

      S. W. Moon, C. Jeon, H.-N. Hwang, C.-C. Hwang, H. J. Song, H.-J. Shin, S. Chung and C.-Y. Park

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602166

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chlorine nanolayers can be modified by extreme UV (EUV) irradiation, which can be applied to the fabrication of various surface functional-group patterns (see igure) owing to the striking contrast in reactivity between EUV-exposed and -unexposed regions. The technique provides flexibility of surface functionalization and may be applicable to the manufacture of electronic, photonic, and biomolecular nanodevices.

    2. Nanofacet Lithography: A New Bottom-Up Approach to Nanopatterning and Nanofabrication by Soft Replication of Spontaneously Faceted Crystal Surfaces (pages 1325–1330)

      R. Gabai, A. Ismach and E. Joselevich

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601625

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      The faceting of unstable crystal surfaces provides self-assembling templates for soft lithography, enabling the facile generation of a variety of periodic nanopatterned monolayers, nanowires, nanogrooves, nanogrids, and nanowaffles of Au and Si (the figure shows the replication of faceted sapphire to an elastomeric stamp, and then to a patterned self-assembled monolayer).

    3. Membrane Densification of Heated Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Capsules Characterized by Soft X-ray Microscopy (pages 1331–1336)

      C. Déjugnat, K. Köhler, M. Dubois, G. B. Sukhorukov, H. Möhwald, T. Zemb and P. Guttmann

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602643

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      Soft X-Ray microscopy is used for the quantitative analysis of temperature-sensitive hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules made of poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) and poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (see figure). Upon heating to 90 °C they shrink and the polymer membrane becomes denser. The analysis of such systems in water shows, at 20 nm resolution, that membrane densification is accompanied by exclusion of about 50% of the hydration water, leading to homogeneously filled dense spheres without any loss of material.

    4. Etching Masks Based on Miniemulsions: A Novel Route Towards Ordered Arrays of Surface Nanostructures (pages 1337–1341)

      A. Manzke, C. Pfahler, O. Dubbers, A. Plettl, P. Ziemann, D. Crespy, E. Schreiber, U. Ziener and K. Landfester

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601945

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      Platinum-complex-loaded colloidal polystyrene particles are prepared by a miniemulsion technique and deposited on silica in hexagonally ordered monolayers. Optimized plasma and annealing procedures generate Pt particles with diameters appropriate to their metal content at interparticle distances given by the colloidal size. Serving as etching masks in a reactive-ion etching process, the original order of colloids is transferred to nanopillars and nanoholes with aspect ratios of up to 10 (see figure).

    5. Mg3N2-Ga: Nanoscale Semiconductor–Liquid Metal Heterojunctions inside Graphitic Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1342–1346)

      J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, C. Z. Li and D. Golberg

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602182

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mg3N2-Ga nanoscale semiconductor–liquid metal heterojunctions homogeneously coated with very thin graphitic carbon nanotube (GCNT) layers are fabricated (see figure). Most of the junctions have a uniform diameter of ca. 100–200 nm. GCNTs coated on the nanowire junctions are only several nanometers thick. A convergent electron beam generated in a transmission electron microscope is demonstrated to be an effective tool for delicate manipulation of a junction.

    6. Synthesis of Silicon Nanowires with Wurtzite Crystalline Structure by Using Standard Chemical Vapor Deposition (pages 1347–1351)

      A. Fontcuberta i Morral, J. Arbiol, J. D. Prades, A. Cirera and J. R. Morante

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602318

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Silicon nanowires—filamentary crystals with a very high ratio of length to diameter (see figure)—allow growth of the wurtzite crystalline phase, which is also semiconducting for silicon. The association of this phenomenon with the competition between surface energy and pressure effects occurring at diameters below 150 nm is shown.

    7. Phase Reorganization in Self-Assembled Systems Through Interparticle Material Transfer (pages 1352–1358)

      C. Moitzi, S. Guillot, G. Fritz, S. Salentinig and O. Glatter

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601679

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      Transfer of material occurs when internally nanostructured emulsion droplets of different composition are mixed. This happens without droplet fusion. As the internal structure is dependent on the composition, the transfer can be followed by monitoring these changes using time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS; see figure).

    8. Bistable Spin-Crossover Nanoparticles Showing Magnetic Thermal Hysteresis near Room Temperature (pages 1359–1361)

      E. Coronado, J. R. Galán-Mascarós, M. Monrabal-Capilla, J. García-Martínez and P. Pardo-Ibáñez

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700559

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoparticles exhibiting a cooperative spin transition, prepared using the reverse micelle technique, are reported. A 40 K magnetic hysteresis is observed near room temperature for [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) nanoparticles (where trz is a triazole derivative) of 11 ± 5 nm in diameter. The figure shows the nanoparticles in octane in the low-spin state (left) and the high-spin state (right).

    9. Spontaneous Assembly of Magnetic Microspheres (pages 1362–1368)

      M. S. Toprak, B. J. McKenna, M. Mikhaylova, J. H. Waite and G. D. Stucky

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The first use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as assembling components in complex coacervation is presented. The single-step formation of MNP-based microspheres (see figure) can be considered as a NP self-assembly process induced by the presence of polyelectrolytes, in which solid microspheres are rapidly generated at ambient temperature, without the need for a solid template.

    10. Ceramic–Polymer Composites with High Dielectric Constant (pages 1369–1372)

      M. Arbatti, X. Shan and Z.-Y. Cheng

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601996

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Semiconductorlike CaCu3Ti4O12ceramic powders are filled into a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer matrix to form a flexible composite. The dielectric constant of the composites at 100 Hz reaches more than 600 at room temperature and 1200 at 70 °C, as shown in the figure. The contribution of the heterogeneous relaxation is partially responsible for the high dielectric constant observed here.

    11. Sugar Coating of Boron Powder for Efficient Carbon Doping of MgB2 with Enhanced Current-Carrying Performance (pages 1373–1376)

      S. Zhou, A. V. Pan, D. Wexler and S. X. Dou

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601659

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two B or not two B? A liquid solution of carbohydrates, such as plain sugar, with boron powder is developed for coating boron particles with a nanoscale carbon layer. This enables the effective substitution of boron atoms by carbon and homogeneous distribution of defects in the crystal lattice of the superconductor MgB2 during the solid-state reaction. This in turn leads to significant enhancement of the material's current-carrying properties (see figure).

    12. Polymer Viscoelasticity and Residual Stress Effects on Nanoimprint Lithography (pages 1377–1382)

      Y. Ding, H. W. Ro, J. F. Douglas, R. L. Jones, D. R. Hine, A. Karim and C. L. Soles

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601998

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The decay kinetics of polystyrene (PS) gratings are monitored by tracking the intensity of the first-order laser diffraction peak as a function of annealing time. For low-molecular-mass PS (24 kg mol–1, blue circles), an exponential response suggests that the pattern decay is a surface-tension- driven viscous flow. In high-molecular-mass PS (1007 kg mol–1, green circles) a complicated response includes a rapid elastic recovery, a power-law creep, and a viscouslike flow (see figure).

    13. Controlled Formation of Patterned Gold Films via Site-Selective Deposition of Nanoparticles onto Polymer-Templated Surfaces (pages 1383–1386)

      H. Xu, R. Hong, X. Wang, R. Arvizo, C. You, B. Samanta, D. Patra, M. T. Tuominen and V. M. Rotello

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700124

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A positively charged polyvinyl N-methylpyridine (PVMP) polymer is patterned on a solid substrate via photochemical crosslinking, with the resultant cationic surface directing the adsorption of water-soluble Au nanoparticles, producing patterned nanostructured conductive films (see figure). These surfaces could be further modified with thiol ligands allowing fine-tuning of surface wettability and biocompatibility.

    14. Spatial Fourier-Transform Analysis of the Morphology of Bulk Heterojunction Materials Used in “Plastic” Solar Cells (pages 1387–1390)

      W. Ma, C. Yang and A. J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601933

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spatial Fourier transforms and power spectral density were used to analyze digital TEM images of bulk heterojunction material based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) as donor and a soluble fullerene (PCBM) as acceptor. Optimized high-temperature annealing leads to well-defined nanoscale (< 20 nm) interpenetrating networks (see figure). The power spectral density provides a detailed and quantitative description of the bulk heterojunction material and the kinetics of the phase separation.

    15. Nanoimprinted Semitransparent Metal Electrodes and Their Application in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 1391–1396)

      M.-G. Kang and L. J. Guo

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700134

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Semitransparent metal electrodes fabricated by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in the form of nanoscale periodically perforated metal films are reported. They show high transmittance in the visible wavelength range as well as excellent electrical conductivities (see figure), and both characteristics can be tuned separately by changing the aperture ratio and the metal thickness. The fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) incorporating these transparent conducting electrodes demonstrates their potential use.

    16. A Molecule-Based Nanoporous Material Showing Tuneable Spin-Crossover Behavior near Room Temperature (pages 1397–1402)

      M. Quesada, V. A. de la Peña-O'Shea, G. Aromí, S. Geremia, C. Massera, O. Roubeau, P. Gamez and J. Reedijk

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602284

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A FeII-based 1D open framework that exhibits room-temperature spin- crossover (SCO) is reported. This material shows a reversible structural, magnetic, and chromatic response to a sorption/desorption process, allowing the tuning of the spin-transition properties by choosing the appropriate solvent (see figure). This feature represents the first example of a bifunctional material in which host–guest properties directly influence the SCO properties.

    17. Large-Area 3D Nanostructures with Octagonal Quasicrystalline Symmetry via Phase-Mask Lithography (pages 1403–1407)

      I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith and E. L. Thomas

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700178

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      3D nanostructured quasicrystalline materials significantly larger than feasible with previously reported techniques are produced. 2D quasiperiodic surface relief templates with 8mm point group symmetry are made by multiple-exposure interference lithography. Phase-mask lithography with corresponding PDMS masks produce bicontinuous 3D axial quasicrystal SU-8 structures (see figure).

    18. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of Brookite TiO2 Macroporous Particles Prepared by Spray Drying with Colloidal Templating (pages 1408–1412)

      F. Iskandar, A. B. D. Nandiyanto, K. M. Yun, C. J. Hogan Jr., K. Okuyama and P. Biswas

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601822

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Macroporous particle photocatalysts can be produced using polystyrene latex (PSL) colloidal templating (see figure), which can be used for organic waste degradation. The rate of degradation is similar to that of nanoparticles. Macroporous particles have lower mechanical mobilities than nanoparticles and can be easily collected and recovered for repeated use.

    19. Spontaneous Formation of Mesoscale Polymer Patterns in an Evaporating Bound Solution (pages 1413–1417)

      S. W. Hong, J. Xia and Z. Lin

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601882

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ordered mesoscale polymer patterns are formed spontaneously by allowing a drop of polymer solutions to evaporate in a restricted geometry consisting of a sphere on a flat surface (i.e., bound liquid, see figure). Gradient concentric ring patterns and self-organized punch-hole-like structures are obtained via mediating interfacial interactions between the polymer and the substrate.

    20. High Dielectric Performance of Polymer Composite Films Induced by a Percolating Interparticle Barrier Layer (pages 1418–1422)

      Y. Shen, Y. Lin, M. Li and C.-W. Nan

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polymer composites containing hybrid particles with an organic carbonaceous shell coating on Ag cores were prepared by low-cost solution processing. A stable high dielectric constant κ and low dielectric loss tan δ (see figure) were observed because of percolating interparticle barrier layers provided by the core/shell particles.

  6. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
  7. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Correction
    5. Progress Report
    6. Communications
    7. Book Review
    8. Index
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Mater. 10/2007 (pages 1425–1426)

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790036

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