Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 17

September, 2007

Volume 19, Issue 17

Pages 2183–2388

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Effect of Water Filling on the Electronic and Vibrational Resonances of Carbon Nanotubes: Characterizing Tube Opening by Raman Spectroscopy (Adv. Mater. 17/2007)

      W. Wenseleers, S. Cambré, J. Čulin, A. Bouwen and E. Goovaerts

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790063

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Water accessibility of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be monitored by resonant Raman spectroscopy (RRS) (see figure and cover) of the radial breathing modes of bile salt-solubilized CNTs. The RRS features of empty and water-filled CNTs can be very well resolved, and vibrational and electronic shifts and broadenings have been accurately determined. The results also lead to a simple ratiometric method to quantify tube opening under various chemical and mechanical treatments.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Towards Understanding Why a Superhydrophobic Coating Is Needed by Water Striders (Adv. Mater. 17/2007)

      F. Shi, J. Niu, J. Liu, F. Liu, Z. Wang, X.-Q. Feng and X. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790064

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold threads modified with superhydrophobic or normal hydrophobic coatings are used as a model system in the study of the contribution of the superhydrophobic coating of a water strider to its floating and movement on the water surface. After depositing Pt aggregates on one of its ends (see figure), the gold threads are able to move in the H2O2 aqueous solution. The superhydrophobic coating decreases fluidic drag during motion.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Index
  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Index
    1. Click Chemistry: Versatility and Control in the Hands of Materials Scientists (pages 2197–2208)

      H. Nandivada, X. Jiang and J. Lahann

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602739

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Click chemistry has converged into an important tool set for materials scientists with applications related to nanomaterials, biointerfaces, and polymers. This Review describes the advances in the use of cycloadditions in materials science. Such reactions are versatile, have high yields, and tolerant of many functional groups. The figure shows a protein pattern made by spatially controlled 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a model azide-linker onto an alkyne-functionalized polymer coating.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Index
    1. Simultaneous IR Material Recognition and Conductivity Mapping by Nanoscale Near-Field Microscopy (pages 2209–2212)

      A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn and R. Hillenbrand

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602303

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      IR scattering-type near-field microscopy is applied to simultaneously map material composition and conduction properties in cross-sectional samples of industrial bipolar and metal-oxide- semiconductor devices with nanoscale spatial resolution. Within a single mid-IR image, all relevant materials such as metals, Si, Si3N4, and oxides can be identified by material-specific amplitude and phase contrasts.

    2. The Dry-Style Antifogging Properties of Mosquito Compound Eyes and Artificial Analogues Prepared by Soft Lithography (pages 2213–2217)

      X. Gao, X. Yan, X. Yao, L. Xu, K. Zhang, J. Zhang, B. Yang and L. Jiang

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601946

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The antifogging properties of mosquito compound eyes (see figure) result from their elaborate superhydrophobic surface structure, which consists of hexagonally non-close-packed nipples at the nanoscale and hexagonally close-packed hemispheres at the microscale. A soft-lithography approach is adopted to fabricate artificial compound eyes for exploring the effects of the hierarchical micro- and nanostructure on surface hydrophobicity.

    3. Electroactive Nanostructured Polymers as Tunable Actuators (pages 2218–2223)

      R. Shankar, T. K. Ghosh and R. J. Spontak

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602644

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Lightweight and conformable electroactive actuators stimulated by low electric fields are required for emerging responsive technologies. In this work, we demonstrate that selectively swollen triblock copolymers yield electroactive nanostructured polymers (ENPs) that exhibit excellent displacement (>200% areal strain) under an applied electric field (see figure). Such ENPs possess properties that can be broadly tailored and represent a viable avenue to designer organic actuators for advanced engineering, biomimetic, and biomedical applications.

    4. One-Pot Synthesis of Highly Conductive Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystals (pages 2224–2227)

      G. Bühler, D. Thölmann and C. Feldmann

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602102

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A step towards low-cost thin-film electronics is achieved, based on the microwave-assisted synthesis of In2O3:Sn (ITO) nanoparticles in ionic liquids (see figure). Ink-jet printed layers of the ITO nanoparticles on plastics exhibit a high transmittance and conductivity, without the need for performing any conventional thermal post-treatment. Significantly improved layers with higher conductivities are to be expected from high-quality printing.

    5. Photochemical and Chemical Two-Channel Control of Functional Nanogated Hybrid Architectures (pages 2228–2231)

      E. Aznar, R. Casasús, B. García-Acosta, M. D. Marcos, R. Martínez-Máñez, F. Sancenón, J. Soto and P. Amorós

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601958

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A two-channel switchable nanoscopic hybrid system, able to modulate mass transport by photoresponsive appended organic groups and the presence of G1.5 PAMAM dendrimers as molecular caps, is reported. This new functional gatelike ensemble is chemically (by pH changes) and photochemically (using visible light) controlled in pure aqueous solution, as demonstrated by an experiment involving the controlled release of a dye (see figure).

    6. Role of Oxygen Vacancies in Cr-Doped SrTiO3 for Resistance-Change Memory (pages 2232–2235)

      M. Janousch, G. I. Meijer, U. Staub, B. Delley, S. F. Karg and B. P. Andreasson

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602915

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transition metal oxides exhibiting a bistable resistance state are attractive for nonvolatile memory applications. The relevance of oxygen vacancies for the resistance-change memory is investigated by X-ray fluorescence (see figure), infrared microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy using Cr-doped SrTiO3 as an example. The microscopic origin of resistance switching in this class of materials may be due to an oxygen-vacancy drift occurring in close proximity to one of the electrodes.

    7. Coating of Human Mesenchymal Cells in 3D Culture with Bioinorganic Nanoparticles Promotes Osteoblastic Differentiation and Gene Transfection (pages 2236–2240)

      R. Gonzalez-McQuire, D. W Green, K. A Partridge, R. O. C. Oreffo, S. Mann and S. A. Davis

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602770

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mesenchymal cells are modified in suspension with bio-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles using a scaffold-free cell decoration method. Coated cells remain viable and retain functionality, with cell activity stimulated by the structure and composition of the coating.

    8. Low-Voltage Organic Thin-Film Transistors with High-k Nanocomposite Gate Dielectrics for Flexible Electronics and Optothermal Sensors (pages 2241–2245)

      M. Zirkl, A. Haase, A. Fian, H. Schön, C. Sommer, G. Jakopic, G. Leising, B. Stadlober, I. Graz, N. Gaar, R. Schwödiauer, S. Bauer-Gogonea and S. Bauer

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700831

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic field effect transistors with a nanocomposite gate of ZrO2and poly(α-methyl styrene) (see figure, left) show performances close to the theoretically possible limit, with interface trap densities comparing favorably with the current state of the art in silicon microelectronics. They are not only key elements in flexible electronics, but also in low-cost, high-end sensors, as demonstrated with optothermal sensing elements (see figure, right).

    9. An Explanation for the Very Large Breathing Effect of a Metal–Organic Framework during CO2 Adsorption (pages 2246–2251)

      C. Serre, S. Bourrelly, A. Vimont, N. A. Ramsahye, G. Maurin, P. L. Llewellyn, M. Daturi, Y. Filinchuk, O. Leynaud, P. Barnes and G. Férey

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602645

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The unusual adsorption behavior of CO2 in a nanoporous hybrid metal– organic solid is discussed (see figure). The results indicate that the gas adsorption–desorption step is related to a breathing phenomenon. This study also suggests that the main interactions responsible for the breathing phenomenon are strong guest–framework CO2–OH interactions as well as CO2–CO2 interactions along the tunnels present in the structure.

    10. Optical Gain Performance of Epitaxially Grown para-Sexiphenyl Films (pages 2252–2256)

      F. Cordella, F. Quochi, M. Saba, A. Andreev, H. Sitter, N. S. Sariciftci, A. Mura and G. Bongiovanni

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optical gain performance of epitaxially-grown nanostructured para-sexiphenyl films is demonstrated to be outstanding. The combination of high structural order and low lattice temperature results in a material system with ultrawide (ca. 1 eV) gain bandwidth and long (ca. 1 ns) gain lifetime (see figure) that allows an optimistic outlook for broadband laser applications.

    11. Towards Understanding Why a Superhydrophobic Coating Is Needed by Water Striders (pages 2257–2261)

      F. Shi, J. Niu, J. Liu, F. Liu, Z. Wang, X.-Q. Feng and X. Zhang

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700752

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold threads modified with superhydrophobic or normal hydrophobic coatings are used as a model system in the study of the contribution of the superhydrophobic coating of a water strider to its floating and movement on the water surface. After depositing Pt aggregates on one of its ends (see figure), the gold threads are able to move in the H2O2 aqueous solution. The superhydrophobic coating decreases fluidic drag during motion.

    12. Quasi-Epitaxial Growth of Ni Nanoshells on Au Nanorods (pages 2262–2266)

      M. Grzelczak, B. Rodríguez-González, J. Pérez-Juste and L. M. Liz-Marzán

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700467

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetic nickel shells can be grown on gold nanorods with platinum tips by reduction of Ni2+ with hydrazine in aqueous cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution, using Pt tips as catalysts. The plasmon absorption of the starting gold nanorods can be totally quenched by the metallic layer of nickel, while the magnetic character of these anisotropic, hybrid nanocrystals is demonstrated through alignment under an external magnetic field. Quasi-epitaxial growth is demonstrated by HRTEM and electron diffraction (see figure).

    13. Probing Local Electronic Transport at the Organic Single-Crystal/Dielectric Interface (pages 2267–2273)

      Y. Luo, F. Gustavo, J.-Y. Henry, F. Mathevet, F. Lefloch, M. Sanquer, P. Rannou and B. Grévin

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700913

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate that scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based potentiometric technique, allows for an in-depth exploration of the local electrical potential at the organic/ dielectric interface in sub-μm thick organic single crystals (OSCs), opening novel perspectives for a deeper understanding of intrinsic charge transport, interfacial and contact effects in semi-conducting organic single crystals.

    14. Effect of Water Filling on the Electronic and Vibrational Resonances of Carbon Nanotubes: Characterizing Tube Opening by Raman Spectroscopy (pages 2274–2278)

      W. Wenseleers, S. Cambré, J. Čulin, A. Bouwen and E. Goovaerts

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700773

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Water accessibility of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be monitored by resonant Raman spectroscopy (RRS) (see figure and cover) of the radial breathing modes of bile salt-solubilized CNTs. The RRS features of empty and water-filled CNTs can be very well resolved, and vibrational and electronic shifts and broadenings have been accurately determined. The results also lead to a simple ratiometric method to quantify tube opening under various chemical and mechanical treatments.

    15. Growth and Crystallization of Metal-Containing Block Copolymer Nanotubes in a Selective Solvent (pages 2279–2285)

      X. Wang, H. Wang, D. J. Frankowski, P. G. Lam, P. M. Welch, M. A. Winnik, J. Hartmann, I. Manners and R. J. Spontak

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602230

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly asymmetric metal-containing block copolymers are capable of forming nanotubes in solutions containing a nonpolar solvent. In this study, the time-dependent formation of these nanotubes is investigated and reveals how the aggregate nanostructures develop (see figure for an example at an early stage). These nanotubes are semicrystalline (see the diffraction pattern in the inset), suggesting that crystallization is at least partially responsible for the unique morphology formed by these block copolymers.

    16. Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Hollow Spheres Prepared from TiO2-Stabilized Pickering Emulsion Polymerization (pages 2286–2289)

      T. Chen, P. J. Colver and S. A. F. Bon

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602447

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic–inorganic hybrid hollow spheres are prepared by using a TiO2-stabilized Pickering emulsion polymerization method (see figure). By self-organization of TiO2 nanoparticles at the interface of oil (monomer and solvent) and water, colloidosomes are formed and used as polymerization vessels to obtain the hybrid hollow spheres. The diameter and mechanical stability can be tailored by varying the relative amount of oil phase and the relative amount of divinylbenzene (DVB) in the monomer, respectively.

    17. Magnetic and Electrical Characterizations of Half-Metallic Fe3O4 Nanowires (pages 2290–2294)

      M.-T. Chang, L.-J. Chou, C.-H. Hsieh, Y.-L. Chueh, Z. L. Wang, Y. Murakami and D. Shindo

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602330

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanowires are investigated by means of electron holography, which deduces the magnetic information from the phase shift of electrons. The magnetic flux is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the nanowires (see figure). Observations on the magnetization distribution reveal the possibility of regulating the spin current with the half-metallic nanowires, owing to the controlled magnetization distribution in the 1D form.

    18. A Low-Bandgap Poly(2,7-Carbazole) Derivative for Use in High-Performance Solar Cells (pages 2295–2300)

      N. Blouin, A. Michaud and M. Leclerc

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602496

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polymeric materials are promising for solar cell applications. High-molecular-weight and soluble poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di- 2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] is synthesized by either a Stille or Suzuki coupling reaction. Electrochemical and optical characterization of this thermally and air-stable polymeric material is reported, and bulk heretojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaic devices are fabricated.

    19. Ordered Mesoporous Nanocrystalline Titanium-Carbide/Carbon Composites from In Situ Carbothermal Reduction (pages 2301–2306)

      T. Yu, Y. H. Deng, L. Wang, R. L. Liu, L. J. Zhang, B. Tu and D. Y. Zhao

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700667

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ordered mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium-carbide/carbon composites are synthesized by using a solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly process combined with in situ carbothermal reduction (see figure). The composites comprise crystalline titanium carbides confined in a matrix of amorphous carbon pore walls. The nanocomposites possess a highly ordered 2D hexagonal mesostructure, large uniform pores, high surface areas and controllable titanium content. The TiC nanocrystals enhance the oxidation resistance of carbon frameworks.

    20. Ultrafast Electron Transfer and Decay Dynamics in a Small Band Gap Bulk Heterojunction Material (pages 2307–2312)

      I.-W. Hwang, C. Soci, D. Moses, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. J. Brabec and A. J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602437

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoinduced electron transfer in a small band gap bulk heterojunction material (see figure) is studied by ultrafast spectroscopic methods. In this composite, the photo excitation initiates ultrafast electron transfer from the polymer to the fullerene, as in most bulk heterojunction materials. From analysis of the carrier recombination dynamics, we infer the existence of an intermediate charge transferred state from which long-lived mobile positive and negative carriers are generated.

    21. Ultra-High-Strength Nanofibrillar Al2O3–YAG–YSZ Eutectics (pages 2313–2318)

      P. B. Oliete, J. I. Peña, A. Larrea, V. M. Orera, J. LLorca, J. Y. Pastor, A. Martín and J. Segurado

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602379

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ceramic rods consisting of bundles of well-oriented, single-crystal whiskers of Al2O3, Y3Al5O12, and ZrO2 (20 mol % Y2O3) are grown by directional solidification from the melt at high growth rates in an inert atmosphere by using the laser-heated floating zone method. The nanofibrillar eutectic exhibits an outstanding bending strength (4.6 GPa) and resistance to crack propagation perpendicular to the fibers. The figure shows a TEM image of a longitudinal cross-section of the rod.

    22. Mismatch Strain Induced Formation of ZnO/ZnS Heterostructured Rings (pages 2319–2323)

      X. Wu, P. Jiang, Y. Ding, W. Cai, S. Xie and Z. L. Wang

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602698

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel heterostructured ZnO/ZnS ring structure has been synthesized. The formation process of the ring is attributed to the strain induced bending that arises mainly from the lattice mismatch between ZnO and ZnS. This growth model is in consistent to the electrostatic model proposed previously about the formation of nanorings, nanosprings and nanohelices, but it shows the dominant contribution from interface strain in the ring formation for such a special case. The ring structure of ZnO/ZnS provides an ideal candidate for investigate optoelectronics of ring structured II-VI semiconductors.

    23. α-Fe2O3 Nanorings Prepared by a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Process and Their Sensing Properties (pages 2324–2329)

      X. Hu, J. C. Yu, J. Gong, Q. Li and G. Li

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602176

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Free-standing α-Fe2O3nanorings are synthesized in solution through a rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal process. The ringlike structure is a new member in the family of iron oxide nanostructures. The sensors made of the α-Fe2O3 nanorings exhibit high sensitivity not only for bio-sensing of hydrogen peroxide in a physiological solution but also for gas-sensing of alcohol vapor at room temperature.

    24. Fabrication of Hierarchical Structures on a Polymer Surface to Mimic Natural Superhydrophobic Surfaces (pages 2330–2335)

      Y. Lee, S.-H. Park, K.-B. Kim and J.-K. Lee

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700820

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces successfully fabricated on high-density polyethylene surfaces by simple heat- and pressure-driven imprinting methods using patterned anodic aluminum oxides as replication templates are reported. On measuring the water contact angle (see figure), it is clearly observed that the nanostructures and microstructures together influence the superhydrophobicity of the polymer surface.

    25. Nanostructured Sn–C Composite as an Advanced Anode Material in High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 2336–2340)

      G. Derrien, J. Hassoun, S. Panero and B. Scrosati

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700748

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An innovative electrode, formed from tin nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix is obtained. The compact, composite structure maintains the benefits of nanodimensions but keeps a surface area small, reducing its reactivity and the associated safety risks. The Sn–C electrode has a life extending to several hundreds of cycles with a delivered constant capacity as high as 500 mA h g–1 (see figure) and exceptional performance in a new type of high-performance, advanced lithium-ion battery.

    26. Self-Sustained Thin Webs Consisting of Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Supercapacitors via the Electrospinning of Polyacrylonitrile Solutions Containing Zinc Chloride (pages 2341–2346)

      C. Kim, B. T. N. Ngoc, K. S. Yang, M. Kojima, Y. A. Kim, Y. J. Kim, M. Endo and S. C. Yang

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602184

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We present a simple strategy for the fabrication of porous carbon nanofibers (see figure). This procedure produces thin webs by electrospinning a polymer solution containing different concentrations of zinc chloride and subsequently thermally treating the system. Their resulting surface area and good electrical conductivity make these porous carbon nanofibers useful in the fabrication of efficient electrodes for supercapacitors.

    27. New Hole-Burning Observations in Eu3+-Ion-Doped Glasses (pages 2347–2350)

      M. Nogami, Go. Kawamura, L. Dapvril and K. Goto

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602745

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The irradiation of Eu3+-ion-doped glasses by X-rays allows a new hole- formation phenomenon, being neither persistent nor transient, to be observed. The stable, persistent formation of spectral holes occurs by two-step electron transfer through an activated Eu3+-ion state during laser irradiation (see figure). This new observation is very significant when considering the hole-burning mechanism and developing new persistent spectral hole-burning (PSHB) materials.

    28. Synthesis of Inorganic–Organic Diblock Copolymers as a Precursor of Ordered Mesoporous SiCN Ceramic (pages 2351–2354)

      Q. D. Nghiem, D. J. Kim and D.-P. Kim

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602348

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel poly(vinyl)silazane-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer is successfully synthesized by living free-radical polymerization via a reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) route (see figure). The obtained diblock copolymer, having an inorganic volume fraction of 0.69, leads to phase-separation at the nanoscale to form an ordered nanostructure, which is converted to well-ordered mesoporous SiCN ceramic after heating at 800 °C and maintained up to 1400 °C.

    29. Liquid Crystal Libraries—Ink-jet Formulation and High-Throughput Analysis (pages 2355–2359)

      T. R. Cull, M. J. Goulding and M. Bradley

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602661

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Libraries of liquid crystal mixtures are formulated via inkjet printing, by varying the specific number of drops of each component overprinted in each position to create a large array of discrete, known mixtures (see figure). Screening by using a high throughput technique for the determination of phase transitions identifies eutectic phases as well as melting and clearing transitions that are directly correlated with samples prepared in a conventional manner.

    30. Encapsulation, Compensation, and Substitution of Catalyst Particles during Continuous Growth of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2360–2363)

      R. Xiang, G. Luo, W. Qian, Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Wei, Q. Li and A. Cao

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602468

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By sequential feeding of catalyst materials (see figure) it is revealed that the active growth sites are at the bottom of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and that catalyst particles are constantly encapsulated into the CNTs (see figure). This gives a better insight into the mechanism of CNT formation and on ways to control the growth process. CNTs encapsulating different materials should enable the study of their electronic or magnetic properties, with potential applications as building blocks for nanoelectronics and as fillers in composites for electromagnetic shielding.

    31. Morphology-Enhanced Low-Temperature Sintering of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite (pages 2364–2369)

      J. Wang and L. L. Shaw

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By using hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods, dense (> 99 % theoretical) HA nanocrystalline (see figure) bioceramics were attained at 850 °C through morphology-enhanced diffusion as the driving force for densification. This new mechanism has the potential to give advanced ceramics with enhanced properties or new functionalities.

    32. Single-Hole Hollow Polymer Microspheres toward Specific High-Capacity Uptake of Target Species (pages 2370–2374)

      G. Guan, Z. Zhang, Z. Wang, B. Liu, D. Gao and C. Xie

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700984

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-hole hollow polymer microspheres (see Figure) have been synthesized through the direct polymerization and cross-linking reactions occurring at the surface of carboxyl-capping polystyrene colloids, followed by removal of the core particles. The molecular imprinting of these single-hole hollow microspheres towards the specific high-capacity uptake of target species opens new routes to promising applications.

    33. Aligned Nanocrystalline Fragmentation of Mullite under Shock Loading (pages 2375–2378)

      N. Kawai, T. Atou, S. Ito, K. Yubuta, M. Kikuchi, K. G. Nakamura and K. Kondo

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602380

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Aligned nanocrystalline fragments in an amorphous phase, formed by shock-loading of mullite, are revealed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The novel structure (see figure) is explained by amorphization due to oxygen vacancies in the mullite structure at pressures above the phase-transition pressure.

    34. Fabrication of Highly Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Films by Vapor Phase Polymerization and Their Application in Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 2379–2385)

      P. A. Levermore, L. Chen, X. Wang, R. Das and D. D. C. Bradley

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700614

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Flexible polymer light-emitting diodes (see photo) are fabricated using highly conductive vapor-phase polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (VPP PEDOT) as an anode material. The influence of the VPP PEDOT film thickness and the effects of thermal annealing and oxygen-plasma treatment on conductivity, work function, and optical transmission are explored and used to optimize device performance, resulting ultimately in devices that have efficiencies comparable to those with indium tin oxide anodes.

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Index

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