Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 5

March, 2007

Volume 19, Issue 5

Pages 623–766

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Microsolidics: Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Metallic Microstructures in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (Adv. Mater. 5/2007)

      A. C. Siegel, D. A. Bruzewicz, D. B. Weibel and G. M. Whitesides

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790017

      The fabrication of complex metallic microstructures in 3D by injecting liquid solder into microfluidic channels and allowing the solder to cool and solidify is demonstrated; after fabrication, the metallic structures can be flexed, bent, or twisted (see figure and cover). With this method it is possible to build flexible electronic circuits, complex embedded or freestanding 3D metal microstructures, 3D electronic components, and hybrid electronic–microfluidic devices.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Photoinduced Nitrosyl Linkage Isomers Uncover a Variety of Unconventional Photorefractive Media (Adv. Mater. 5/2007)

      D. Schaniel, M. Imlau, T. Weisemoeller, T. Woike, K. W. Krämer and H.-U. Güdel

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790018

      Photorefraction is shown to arise generally with the generation of light-induced linkage isomers in compounds containing the complexes [ML5NO]m±, where M is a transition metal, L a ligand, and m the formal charge of the anion/cation (see figure and inside cover). The photorefractive properties of the complex can be tuned by chemical variation of M and L.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 5/2007 (pages 623–631)

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790015

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Knowledge for Generations (pages 637–638)

      P. Gregory

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700391

      For nearly twenty years, the Advanced Materials family of journals has been a rich source of knowledge for the materials science community. Returning as Editor-in-Chief, Peter Gregory reflects on this tradition of reporting outstanding research, and offers some views on maintaining these standards for future generations.

  5. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index
    1. When Small Is Different: Some Recent Advances in Concepts and Applications of Nanoscale Phenomena (pages 639–655)

      G. Hodes

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A brief description of the size-dependent properties exhibited at the nanoscale is given in this Progress Report. Following this general description, recent developments in a number of selected topics in nanoscience are covered: luminescence from Au nanoparticles; Si (and related) nanoparticle luminescence; modification of optical absorption by surface adsorption on nanoparticles; and transistors based on nanotubes and nanowires.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: When Small Is Different: Some Recent Advances in Concepts and Applications of Nanoscale Phenomena

      Vol. 19, Issue 10, 1307, Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2007

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index
    1. Mesoporous Crystalline β-MnO2—a Reversible Positive Electrode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (pages 657–660)

      F. Jiao and P. G. Bruce

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602499

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mesoporous β-MnO2 (rutile structure) with a highly ordered pore structure (see figure) and highly crystalline walls is capable of reversibly accommodating lithium, up to a composition of Li0.92MnO2 (equivalent to a charge storage of 284 mA h g–1). Remarkably, the crystal structure and the ordered mesostructure are preserved after many cycles (Li intercalation/deintercalation).

    2. Carbon Nanotube Aerogels (pages 661–664)

      M. B. Bryning, D. E. Milkie, M. F. Islam, L. A. Hough, J. M. Kikkawa and A. G. Yodh

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601748

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The creation of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels from aqueous-gel precursors by critical-point-drying and freeze-drying is reported. The CNT aerogels are strong and electrically conducting—a potential improvement over current technologies for applications such as sensors, electrodes, and thermoelectric devices. The aerogels can be reinforced by small amounts of poly vinyl alcohol (in the figure the aerogel is supporting 8000 times its own weight).

    3. The Role of the Ionization Potential in Vacuum-Level Alignment at Organic Semiconductor Interfaces (pages 665–668)

      H. Fukagawa, S. Kera, T. Kataoka, S. Hosoumi, Y. Watanabe, K. Kudo and N. Ueno

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601678

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The charge-injection barriers at interfaces of a pentacene monolayer are investigated. It is found that the charge-injection barrier depends on the substrate work function. Substrate work functions smaller than the ionization potential of pentacene film have vacuum-level alignment, whereas for substrate work functions exceeding the ionization potential of pentacene film, the HOMO of the pentacene film is pinned to near the Fermi level of the substrate (see figure).

    4. Fast Conductance Switching in Single-Crystal Organic Nanoneedles Prepared from an Interfacial Polymerization-Crystallization of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (pages 669–672)

      K. Su, N. Nuraje, L. Zhang, I-W. Chu, R. M. Peetz, H. Matsui and N.-L. Yang

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602277

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The preparation of PEDOT single- crystal nanoneedles using an interfacial polymerization process with simultaneous crystallization is reported. The absence of external dopants and crystallization during chain growth leads to closely packed crystals. These nanoneedles show a novel switching behavior with a response time in milliseconds (see figure).

    5. “Lyophilisomes”: A New Type of (Bio)capsule (pages 673–677)

      W. F. Daamen, P. J. Geutjes, H. T. B. van Moerkerk, S. T. M. Nillesen, R. G. Wismans, T. Hafmans, L. P. W. J. van den Heuvel, A. M. A. Pistorius, J. H. Veerkamp, J. C. M. van Hest and T. H. van Kuppevelt

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601947

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Lyophilisomes—a novel class of nano/microscale capsules—are prepared using a combined freezing, annealing, and lyophilization procedure. Specific molecules could be differentially incorporated in the capsule wall and capsule lumen, thus creating a binary system. With this cheap and simple technology, a large range of new (bioactive) capsules may be anticipated.

    6. High-Mobility Organic Transistors Based on Single-Crystalline Microribbons of Triisopropylsilylethynyl Pentacene via Solution-Phase Self-Assembly (pages 678–682)

      D. H. Kim, D. Y. Lee, H. S. Lee, W. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. I. Han and K. Cho

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601259

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-crystalline triisopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN) microribbons (see figure) with well-defined facets and unprecedented electrical characteristics, such as a field-effect mobility as high as 1.4 cm2 V–1 s–1, are fabricated through the self-assembly of individual TIPS-PEN molecules as a result of solvophobic interactions in the solution phase adopting preferential well-ordered intermolecular π–π stacking along the ribbon axis.

    7. A Multilayered Polymer Light-Emitting Diode Using a Nanocrystalline Metal-Oxide Film as a Charge-Injection Electrode (pages 683–687)

      S. A. Haque, S. Koops, N. Tokmoldin, J. R. Durrant, J. Huang, D. D. C. Bradley and E. Palomares

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601619

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A light-emitting diode based upon a three-component hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposite film, comprising a mesoporous TiO2 film, a light-emitting polymer adsorbed to the metal-oxide surface, and a hole-transporting polymer interpenetrated into the film pores (see figure), is described: it allows the luminescence and charge-carrier transport processes to be tuned individually.

    8. Interface-Controlled, High-Mobility Organic Transistors (pages 688–692)

      O. D. Jurchescu, M. Popinciuc, B. J. van Wees and T. T. M. Palstra

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600929

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The achievement of high mobilities in field-effect transistors (FETs) is one of the main challenges for the widespread application of organic conductors in devices. Good device performance of a single-crystal pentacene FET requires both removal of impurity molecules from the bulk and the manipulation of interface states. A reliable method for fabricating FETs, which involves careful control of the semiconductor/gate interface (see figure), is presented.

    9. Bone Formation Mediated by Synergy-Acting Growth Factors Embedded in a Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film (pages 693–697)

      A. Dierich, E. Le Guen, N. Messaddeq, J.-F. Stoltz, P. Netter, P. Schaaf, J.-C. Voegel and N. Benkirane-Jessel

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601271

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A bifunctionalized polyelectrolyte multilayer film (PEM film) that can drive embryonic stem cells to cartilage or bone differentiation is presented. A model system is constructed from a PEM film into which transforming growth factor β1 and bone morphogenetic protein has been embedded. The synergy between both factors is required for the film to be bioactive. Osteogenesis in embryonic stem cells is induced by the film (see figure).

    10. Regenerated-Cellulose/Multiwalled- Carbon-Nanotube Composite Fibers with Enhanced Mechanical Properties Prepared with the Ionic Liquid 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride (pages 698–704)

      H. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, Z. N. Zhang, J. Wu, J. Zhang and J. S. He

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600442

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Good dispersion and alignment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in cellulose is achieved by dissolution in an ionic liquid and subsequent grinding and spinning. This simple method of preparing regenerated-cellulose/MWCNT composite fibers could lead to the production of carbon fibers from a renewable resource (cellulose). The figure shows regenerated cellulose (white) and cellulose/MWCNT composite (black) fibers.

    11. High-Modulus Spin-On Organosilicate Glasses for Nanoporous Applications (pages 705–710)

      H. W. Ro, K. Char, E.-c. Jeon, H.-J. Kim, D. Kwon, H.-J. Lee, J.-K. Lee, H.-W. Rhee, C. L. Soles and D. Y. Yoon

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601528

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Both the modulus and hardness of a conventional methylsilsesquioxane-type organosilicate, typically synthesized from the methyltrimethoxysilane monomer, can be substantially improved by incorporating organic bridging units through additions of the bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane monomer. The microstructural basis for these enhanced properties is described in this Communication.

    12. Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit the Proliferation of Multiple Myeloma Cells (pages 711–716)

      R. Bhattacharya, C. R. Patra, R. Verma, S. Kumar, P. R. Greipp and P. Mukherjee

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602098

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold nanoparticles significantly inhibit proliferation in multiple myeloma cell lines (see figure) in a dose-dependent manner. Gold-treated multiple myeloma cells show cell-cycle arrest in the G1-phase (the phase when chromosomes prepare for replication) by up-regulation of cell-cycle cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Gold nanoparticles do not affect normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    13. Electronically Interacting Composite Systems for Electrical Bistability and Memory Applications (pages 717–722)

      B. Mukherjee, S. K. Batabyal and A. J. Pal

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601490

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electronically interacting composites of nanomaterials and aromatic molecules show high electrical bistability caused by the interaction between the two π-electron rich systems. The nanomaterials introduce channels for carrier transport that switch the organic molecules to their high-conducting state. The systems exhibit read-only and random-access memory applications.

    14. Photoinduced Nitrosyl Linkage Isomers Uncover a Variety of Unconventional Photorefractive Media (pages 723–726)

      D. Schaniel, M. Imlau, T. Weisemoeller, T. Woike, K. W. Krämer and H.-U. Güdel

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601378

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photorefraction is shown to arise generally with the generation of light-induced linkage isomers in compounds containing the complexes [ML5NO]m±, where M is a transition metal, L a ligand, and m the formal charge of the anion/cation (see figure and inside cover). The photorefractive properties of the complex can be tuned by chemical variation of M and L.

    15. Microsolidics: Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Metallic Microstructures in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (pages 727–733)

      A. C. Siegel, D. A. Bruzewicz, D. B. Weibel and G. M. Whitesides

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601787

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The fabrication of complex metallic microstructures in 3D by injecting liquid solder into microfluidic channels and allowing the solder to cool and solidify is demonstrated; after fabrication, the metallic structures can be flexed, bent, or twisted (see figure and cover). With this method it is possible to build flexible electronic circuits, complex embedded or freestanding 3D metal microstructures, 3D electronic components, and hybrid electronic–microfluidic devices.

    16. Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors (pages 734–738)

      E. C. P. Smits, S. Setayesh, T. D. Anthopoulos, M. Buechel, W. Nijssen, R. Coehoorn, P. W. M. Blom, B. de Boer and D. M. de Leeuw

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600999

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Near-IR light-emitting ambipolar OFETs are demonstrated, employing a squaraine derivative as the electroactive layer. Efficient control of the emission-region position in the channel is achieved by varying the drain/gate potentials. By using a transport model, combined with experimental results, strong metal-induced electroluminescence quenching is observed when light emission takes place in close proximity to the source–drain electrodes (see figure).

    17. Highly Efficient Red-Emission Polymer Phosphorescent Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Two Novel Tris(1-phenylisoquinolinato-C2,N)iridium(III) Derivatives (pages 739–743)

      J. Huang, T. Watanabe, K. Ueno and Y. Yang

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601040

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)3) derivatives are used to fabricate highly efficient red-emission phosphorescent polymer LEDs. The continuous tuning of the electron current to balance the hole current perfectly, by changing the thickness of the electron-injection layer, is demonstrated. Peak efficiencies of 16.9 cd A–1 and 17.6 lm W–1 are achieved for red emission (see figure).

    18. Fabrication of Silicon Nanowire Arrays with Controlled Diameter, Length, and Density (pages 744–748)

      Z. Huang, H. Fang and J. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600892

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A templated catalytic etching process has been developed to fabricate large-area arrays of silicon nanowires with controlled diameter, length, and density. The figure shows an example of an array constructed by this technique. Etched polystyrene spheres are used as templates to define the lateral dimensions of the array, whereas the length of the nanowires is defined by the duration of the etching process.

    19. A Sonochemical Method for Fabricating Aligned ZnO Nanorods (pages 749–753)

      S.-H. Jung, E. Oh, K.-H. Lee, W. Park and S.-H. Jeong

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601859

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fabrication of arrays of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods by a simple sonochemical route is demonstrated (see figure). The nanorods can be grown in situ over large areas at a high density under ambient conditions—important for nanoelectronic circuit integration—and on various substrates, including transparent glass and polycarbonate. Growth of the nanorods in patterns using a lithographic technique is also described.

    20. Charge-Injection Barriers at Realistic Metal/Organic Interfaces: Metals Become Faceless (pages 754–756)

      M. Grobosch and M. Knupfer

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602435

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Interfaces between the organic semiconductor α-sexithiophene and sputter-cleaned (ideal) metals or contaminated (realistic) metals are investigated by a combined X-ray and UV photoemission spectroscopic study. The experimental results indicate a substantial impact of metal-surface contamination on the electronic properties of the interface. In particular, the hole-injection barrier is almost independent of the type of the underlying metal (see figure).

    21. Solvent-Vapor-Assisted Imprint Lithography (pages 757–761)

      N. E. Voicu, S. Ludwigs, E. J. W. Crossland, P. Andrew and U. Steiner

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601599

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity replication.

  7. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index
  8. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Book Reviews
    9. Index

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