Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 8

April, 2007

Volume 19, Issue 8

Pages 1015–1148

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Self-Assembled Metal Oxide Bilayer Films with “Single-Crystalline” Overlayer Mesopore Structure (Adv. Mater. 8/2007)

      T. Brezesinski, M. Antonietti and B. M. Smarsly

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790029

      Mesoporous films with almost “single-crystalline” arrangements of spherical pores are obtained by “evaporation- induced self-assembly”: the films are dip-coated onto a sublayer with sufficiently different surface tension and nanometer-scale periodicity. A film with almost single-crystalline (biaxially oriented) pore structure nucleating on an appropriately mesostructured sublayer is shown in the figure and on the cover.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 8/2007 (pages 1015–1022)

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790027

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Biological Containers: Protein Cages as Multifunctional Nanoplatforms (pages 1025–1042)

      M. Uchida, M. T. Klem, M. Allen, P. Suci, M. Flenniken, E. Gillitzer, Z. Varpness, L. O. Liepold, M. Young and T. Douglas

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601168

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Biological systems fabricate materials under mild synthetic conditions using self-assembled macromolecular templates. Containerlike protein architectures such as viral capsids and ferritin are examples of such biological templates. Three distinct interfaces can be synthetically exploited: the interior, the exterior, and the interface between subunits (see figure). Recent studies investigating the development of some containerlike protein-cage architectures for material synthesis are presented in this article.

    2. New Directions for Low-Dimensional Thermoelectric Materials (pages 1043–1053)

      M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Chen, M. Y. Tang, R. G. Yang, H. Lee, D. Z. Wang, Z. F. Ren, J.-P. Fleurial and P. Gogna

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600527

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanostructural composites (shown schematically in the figure) are shown to exhibit nanostructures and promising properties for thermoelectric applications, thus bringing together low-dimensional and bulk materials. The ability to achieve a simultaneous increase in the power factor and a decrease in the thermal conductivity in the same nanocomposite, and lower values of thermal conductivity compared to alloy samples of the same chemical composition is discussed.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Fluorescent Nanotubes Consisting of CdS-Embedded Bilayer Membranes of a Peptide Lipid (pages 1055–1058)

      Y. Zhou, M. Kogiso, C. He, Y. Shimizu, N. Koshizaki and T. Shimizu

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602001

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluorescent nanotubes (CdS-LNT) with hollow cylindrical morphologies are prepared, where CdS nanodots (NDs) in a face-centered cubic phase of the zinc blende structure have grown all over the bilayer membrane walls of a lipid nanotube (LNT). The hollow cylinder of the CdS-ND-embedded LNT was found to be able to load the spherical protein ferritin or gold nanoparticles inside (see figure).

    2. Uniform Polymeric Hollow Microcapsules with Controlled Doping Levels Fabricated under Nonreactive Conditions (pages 1059–1063)

      K. Wygladacz, N. Ye, C. Xu, R. W. Retter, M. Bell, A. Hilgenbrink and E. Bakker

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602160

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A chemically nonreactive method for the fabrication of uniform core/shell fluorescent polymeric microspheres (see figure) is demonstrated with a flow apparatus. Various dyes and labeled proteins are doped into the appropriate particle phases, and an early example of chemical sensing is demonstrated.

    3. Optical Fabrication of Hollow Platinum Nanospheres by Excavating the Silver Core of Ag@Pt Nanoparticles (pages 1064–1068)

      S. J. Kim, C. S. Ah and D.-J. Jang

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601646

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hollow platinum nanospheres (see figure) have been fabricated by optical excavation of the core silver metal of Ag@Pt core/shell nanoparticles. The surface plasmon resonances of the shell platinum metal were excited with picosecond laser pulses of 1064 nm. Thermalized photon energy induces the silver to melt and effuse rapidly through the shell, producing smooth hollow platinum nanospheres.

    4. Nanostructuring of a Titanium Material by High-Pressure Torsion Improves Pre-Osteoblast Attachment (pages 1069–1073)

      S. Faghihi, A. P. Zhilyaev, J. A. Szpunar, F. Azari, H. Vali and M. Tabrizian

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602276

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Interaction of osteoblast and fibroblast cells with the surface of nanostructured titanium fabricated through high-pressure torsion (HPT) is reported. The underlying metallic nanostructure of an HPT-processed titanium substrate (see figure) affects the structure and composition of the thin oxide layer formed on the surface of these substrates. As a result, the physical and biological behavior of osteoblast cells toward the HPT-processed titanium substrates substantially improves (see inset).

    5. Self-Assembled Metal Oxide Bilayer Films with “Single-Crystalline” Overlayer Mesopore Structure (pages 1074–1078)

      T. Brezesinski, M. Antonietti and B. M. Smarsly

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602867

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mesoporous films with almost “single-crystalline” arrangements of spherical pores are obtained by “evaporation- induced self-assembly”: the films are dip-coated onto a sublayer with sufficiently different surface tension and nanometer-scale periodicity. A film with almost single-crystalline (biaxially oriented) pore structure nucleating on an appropriately mesostructured sublayer is shown in the figure and on the cover.

    6. Chiral Polymer–Carbon-Nanotube Composite Nanofibers (pages 1079–1083)

      X. Zhang, W. Song, P. J. F. Harris, G. R. Mitchell, T. T. T. Bui and A. F. Drake

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601886

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optically active polyanilinecarbon-nanotube nanocomposites are synthesized by using a solution-chemistry method. The stereochemical selectivity of the composites can be tailored by controlling the nanotube loading. At low nanotube contents (<3 wt %), the chiral composites show high absolute stereochemical selectivity. The figure shows normalized circular dichroism spectra of the composites with different nanotube/monomer weight ratios in aqueous solutions.

    7. Guiding Cell Migration Using One-Way Micropattern Arrays (pages 1084–1090)

      G. Kumar, C.-C. Ho and C. C. Co

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601629

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A single NIH 3T3 fibroblast on a teardrop island, surrounded by a cell-resistant background, extends lamellipodia from both sharp and blunt ends. However, the staggered arrangement of the islands and preferential extension of lamellipodia parallel to the cell body only permit attachment of lamellipodia extended from the blunt end, resulting in exclusive counterclockwise migration (the figure is ca. 200 μm wide).

    8. Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells Using Donor-Antenna Dyes Capable of Multistep Charge-Transfer Cascades (pages 1091–1095)

      C. S. Karthikeyan, H. Wietasch and M. Thelakkat

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601872

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Novel ruthenium dyes with electron- donor antenna groups (triphenyl amine and tetraphenylbenzidine) are developed and applied in solid-state dye- sensitized solar cells. The higher absorption arising from extended conjugation in these dyes leads to efficient light harvesting, which in turn results in higher short-circuit currents; multistep charge-transfer cascades take place, very similar to the photosynthetic cascade process (see figure).

    9. Controllable Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Cubic and Hexagonal Phase Nickel Nanocrystals (pages 1096–1100)

      M. Han, Q. Liu, J. He, Y. Song, Z. Xu and J. M. Zhu

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601460

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Phase structure control of Ni nanocrystals has been realized using a one-pot chemical route. By adjusting the growth environment and growth dynamic process, pure cubic and hexagonal phase Ni nanocrystals can be obtained (see figure). Both the cubic and hexagonal phase Ni nanocrystals are shown to possess ferromagnetic properties, but the magnetic properties of the cubic phase are better than those of the hexagonal phase nanocrystals.

    10. Tellurium Nanocylinders under Pressure: Effects of the Geometry of Nanostructures (pages 1101–1104)

      V. Krstic̀, G. L. J. A. Rikken, M. Kaempgen, S. Roth and J. A. Beukes

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601668

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The pressure dependence of the atomic bond lengths and angles of tellurium nanocylinders is investigated by using X-ray diffraction. Under hydrostatic pressure the nanocylinders exhibit behavior attributed to their nanometer size and cylindrical geometry. Novel compression regimes and fingerprints of isostructural phase transitions are observed that do not exist in bulk tellurium (see figure).

    11. Polarization Properties and Switchable Assembly of Ultranarrow ZnSe Nanorods (pages 1105–1108)

      S. Acharya, A. B. Panda, S. Efrima and Y. Golan

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602057

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Large-scale 3D assembly of 1D ZnSe nanorods into microstrings (see figure) by simple application of a dc electric field is reported. The ordered rods exhibit polarization perpendicular to their long axis in fluorescence emission, contrary to the randomly ordered rods. The switchable assembly into long-range microstructures with unique polarization behavior holds great promise for novel applications.

    12. Controlled Double-Sensitivity of Microgels Applied to Electronically Adjustable Chemostats (pages 1109–1112)

      A. Richter, A. Türke and A. Pich

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601989

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The controlled double-sensitivity of stimuli-responsive polymers (see figure) can be used to adjust their functional properties. The ion or solvent concentration, automatically controlled by the micro-chemostat, is adjusted by the temperature of a thermosensitive hydrogel corresponding to its phase transition concentration.

    13. High-Efficiency White-Light Emission from a Single Copolymer: Fluorescent Blue, Green, and Red Chromophores on a Conjugated Polymer Backbone (pages 1113–1117)

      J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. B. Peng, W. Yang and Y. Cao

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601241

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The synthesis and properties of a single copolymer incorporating well-separated blue, green, and red chromophores on a single conjugated polymer backbone are reported. This copolymer is shown to have CIE coordinates of (0.35,0.34) and a luminance efficiency of 6.2 cd A–1. The color coordinates of the resulting white-light emission remained extremely stable over a wide range of driving voltages.

    14. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Luminescent Ln3+-Doped LaVO4 Uniform Nanocrystals (pages 1118–1122)

      J. Liu and Y. D. Li

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600336

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A synthesis and self-assembly approach assisted by oleic acid is developed to fabricate luminescent Ln3+-doped LaVO4 nanocrystals (NCs). These NCs are readily soluble and can spontaneously self-assemble into an ordered nanoarchitecture in nonpolar solvents (see figure). The results should be significant in fabrication and processing of luminescent NCs if functional devices and materials are to be produced.

    15. Air-Stable n-Channel Organic Semiconductors Based on Perylene Diimide Derivatives without Strong Electron Withdrawing Groups (pages 1123–1127)

      M.-M. Ling, P. Erk, M. Gomez, M. Koenemann, J. Locklin and Z. Bao

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601705

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Air-stable transistors based on perylene diimides without strong electron withdrawing groups (see figure) are reported. Through varying the device fabrication process, electron mobilities on the order of 0.1 cm2 V–1 s–1 are achieved by using silica surfaces treated with a surfactant at elevated substrate temperatures. The devices show good air-stability, even after prolonged storage in air (> 80 days). These compounds are potentially useful air-stable n-type semiconductors for thin film transistors.

    16. An Approach to Obtaining Homogeneously Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes in Al Powders for Preparing Reinforced Al-Matrix Composites (pages 1128–1132)

      C. He, N. Zhao, C. Shi, X. Du, J. Li, H. Li and Q. Cui

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601381

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Composite powders of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and aluminum in which the CNTs are homogeneously dispersed within the Al powder are prepared with an in situ method. Uniform Ni nanoparticles are scattered evenly on the surfaces of Al powders, followed by CNT synthesis through chemical vapor deposition. The hardness and tensile strength of the CNT(Ni)–Al matrix composites are improved compared to aluminum.

    17. High-Efficiency and Stable Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on a High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ruthenium Sensitizer and Nonvolatile Electrolyte (pages 1133–1137)

      D. Kuang, C. Klein, S. Ito, J.-E. Moser, R. Humphry-Baker, N. Evans, F. Duriaux, C. Grätzel, S. M. Zakeeruddin and M. Grätzel

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602172

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mesoscopic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with efficiency greater than 10.5 % are reported. Using a newly designed sensitizer (K77, see figure) combined with a newly formulated nonvolatile organic-solvent-based electrolyte (Z646), highly efficient DSCs (up to 9.5 %) that exhibit unprecedented long-term stability (1000 h) under both light-soaking and thermal stress are demonstrated.

    18. A High-Light-Harvesting-Efficiency Coumarin Dye for Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1138–1141)

      Z.-S. Wang, Y. Cui, K. Hara, Y. Dan-oh, C. Kasada and A. Shinpo

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new coumarin dye (see figure) for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. It exhibits near-unity light harvesting efficiency and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (see figure) over a wide spectral region in 6 μm transparent TiO2 films. DSSCs based on this metal-free organic dye show long-term stability and power-conversion efficiencies of around 6 % under continuous light-soaking stress for up to 1000 h.

  5. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Book Review: Nanoscale Assembly. By Wilhelm T. S. Huck (Ed.). (page 1144)

      Mathias Brust

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601922

    2. Book Review: Handbook of Adhesion. By David E. Packham (Ed.). (pages 1144–1145)

      Rachel Yerushalmi-Rozen

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601477

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Reviews
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Mater. 8/2007 (pages 1147–1148)

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200790028

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