Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 11

June 4, 2008

Volume 20, Issue 11

Pages 2021–2232

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Hybrid Soft-Magnetic Lateral Exchange Spring Films Prepared by Ion Irradiation (Adv. Mater. 11/2008)

      Jeffrey McCord, Ludwig Schultz and Jürgen Fassbender

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover shows the distribution of magnetization of a magnetically hybrid film with laterally modulated saturation polarization generated by local ion implantation of chromium into the initial nickel–iron film. Jeffrey McCord and co-workers report on p. 2090 on unique magnetic properties so far only known from magnetic multilayers. The route of preparation provides an extra degree of freedom for the tailoring of functionality of soft-magnetic thin films.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Molten Salt Synthesis and High Rate Performance of the “Desert-Rose” form of LiCoO2 (Adv. Mater. 11/2008)

      Hailong Chen and Clare P. Grey

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890042

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      On p. 2206, Hailong Chen and Clare P. Grey describe the molten-salt synthesis of a new morphology for a cathode material used widely in lithium batteries, LiCoO2, with a similar structure, shown on the cover, to that seen for the “desert-rose” morphology of the mineral gypsum. The material shows excellent capacity at high rates; a remarkable difference to the material used commercially.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Index
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 11/2008) (pages 2021–2030)

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890043

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Index
    1. Incorporation of Hexamethylmelamine inside Capped Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2031–2036)

      Yupeng Ren and Giorgia Pastorin

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702292

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      A “carbon nano-bottle” is loaded with guest molecules and C60 using a controlled nano-extraction strategy. C60 filled at the extremities of CNTs can act as “caps” to seal the CNTs. By modulating the release of the incorporated molecules, carbon nanobottles could represent valuable instruments in compound synthesis, drug delivery, and even in materials storage.

    2. Combinatorial Polymer Scaffold Libraries for Screening Cell-Biomaterial Interactions in 3D (pages 2037–2043)

      Yanyin Yang, Durgadas Bolikal, Matthew L. Becker, Joachim Kohn, Diana N. Zeiger and Carl G. Simon Jr.

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702088

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      A combinatorial method for screening cell–biomaterial interactions in 3D is presented; polymeric, salt-leached scaffolds with varied composition and properties are present in a 96-well plate. Previous high-throughput approaches for screening cell–material interactions have focused on planar 2D surfaces or films. However, biomaterials are commonly used in a 3D scaffold format and cells behave more physiologically when cultured in 3D.

    3. High-Speed Roll-to-Roll Nanoimprint Lithography on Flexible Plastic Substrates (pages 2044–2049)

      Se Hyun Ahn and L. Jay Guo

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702650

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      Nanograting structures in either thermally or UV curable resist are continuously fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate by a high-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint apparatus (see figure). As an example of the applications of such a roll-to-roll imprinting process, a high-performance metal wire-grid polarizer is demonstrated.

    4. Fabrication of Infrared Left-Handed Metamaterials via Double Template-Assisted Electrochemical Deposition (pages 2050–2054)

      Hui Liu, Xiaopeng Zhao, Yang Yang, Qingwu Li and Jun Lv

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702624

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      A sandwich structured left-handed metamaterial (LHM) based on a silver dendritic cell array is prepared by using a double template-assisted electrochemical deposition method. This bottom-up approach provides a facile, lower-cost method to fabricate LHMs of larger areas at IR and even visible light frequencies.

    5. Dispersion of Pristine Carbon Nanotubes Using Conjugated Block Copolymers (pages 2055–2060)

      Jianhua Zou, Liwei Liu, Hui Chen, Saiful I. Khondaker, Richard D. McCullough, Qun Huo and Lei Zhai

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701995

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      A complete dispersion of both single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to individual tube level was achieved using a conjugated block copolymer without chemical modification of the pristine CNTs. The block copolymer contains two structural segments, a conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) segment and a polystyrene (PS) segment. P3HT block forms ππ interactions with CNTs, while the polystyrene block provides a good solubility to the de-bundled carbon nanotubes. This approach is generic for carbon nanotube dispersion.

    6. Cartilage Tissue Engineering in Plasma and Whole Blood Scaffolds (pages 2061–2067)

      Marcus Haberhauer, Göran Zernia, Andrea Deiwick, Claudia Pösel, Augustinus Bader, Daniel Huster and Ronny M. Schulz

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701344

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      Plasma and whole blood based scaffolds were used for cartilage tissue engineering. Chondrocytes were isolated, embedded into these structures, and cultivated for two weeks. To evaluate the neo-synthesized extracellular matrix quantitatively, the constructs were examined by classical techniques and NMR spectroscopy. Significant expression of characteristic extracellular matrix was found suggesting that these materials are well-suited grafts for artificial tissue.

    7. Functionalization of Gold Nanospheres and Nanorods by Chitosan Oligosaccharide Derivatives (pages 2068–2073)

      Erathodiyil Nandanan, Nikhil R. Jana and Jackie Y. Ying

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702193

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      Two new chitosan oligosaccharide derivatives are synthesized for the surface modification of gold nanospheres and nanorods (see figure). These biopolymers have multiple thiols (ca. 6 thiols per polymer molecule) (polymer I) or oleic acids (polymer II) for the effective anchoring to the nanoparticle surface, as well as primary amine groups for further bioconjugation.

    8. Actuating Single Wall Carbon Nanotube–Polymer Composites: Intrinsic Unimorphs (pages 2074–2079)

      Cheol Park, Jin Ho Kang, Joycelyn S. Harrison, Robert C. Costen and Sharon E. Lowther

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702566

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel actuating single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)/polymer composite is reported. It exhibits a large strain (2.6%) at a low driving voltage (<1 MV m−1) while possessing excellent mechanical and thermal properties. The strain energy density is at least an order of magnitude greater than any state-of-the-art polymeric materials reported. The actuating characteristic mainly originates from the electrostrictive contribution, presumably due to interfacial polarization.

    9. Fabrication of Temperature-Responsive Bending Hydrogels with a Nanostructured Gradient (pages 2080–2083)

      Taka-aki Asoh, Michiya Matsusaki, Tatsuo Kaneko and Mitsuru Akashi

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702727

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      Nanostructured gradient gels with unique bending properties due to their deswelling characteristics are presented. These gradient gels are readily fabricated via electrophoresis followed by photo-polymerization, and subsequent silica extraction. Differences in the physical properties between both sides of the gradient gels are the driving force behind the bending of the gels.

    10. Origin of Carrier Types in Intrinsic Organic Semiconductors (pages 2084–2089)

      Toshihiko Kaji, Shiro Entani, Susumu Ikeda and Koichiro Saiki

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701773

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The factors determining carrier type in intrinsic organic semiconductors are clarified by measuring field-effect transistor (FET) characteristics and electronic states for an identical specimen, which is transferred between the film growth/FET measurement and electron spectroscopy chambers in situ (see figure). The FET mobility is found to decrease exponentially with the precisely evaluated charge injection barrier both for electrons and holes.

    11. Hybrid Soft-Magnetic Lateral Exchange Spring Films Prepared by Ion Irradiation (pages 2090–2093)

      Jeffrey McCord, Ludwig Schultz and Jürgen Fassbender

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700623

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetic stripe patterns in a magnetically patterned lateral exchange spring film are created by ion implantation. Periodic domain patterns with predefined positions are created by local alloying. The laterally confined modulation of magnetic properties opens new opportunities to the tuning of functionalities of soft-magnetic thin films.

    12. Fabrication of Luminescent Nanoarchitectures by Electron Irradiation of Polystyrene (pages 2094–2098)

      Hyeok Moo Lee, Yong Nam Kim, Bong Hoon Kim, Sang Ouk Kim and Sung Oh Cho

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702221

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      The luminescent emittance color of non-emissive polystyrene (PS) is varied from blue to white by irradiation with an electron beam. Desired luminescent nanoarchitectures and nanopatte rns are produced in straightforward manner by direct electron-beam writing and by irradiating well-defined PS nanoarchitectures prep ared by various bottom-up approaches.

    13. Emission Color Tuning with Polymer Molecular Weight for Difluoroboron Dibenzoylmethane-Polylactide (pages 2099–2104)

      Guoqing Zhang, Steven E. Kooi, J. N. Demas and Cassandra L. Fraser

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702681

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      Difluoroboron dibenzoylmethane-poly(lactic acid) emission is sensitive to the polarity of the surrounding medium. As the polymer molecular weight increases, fluorescence maxima blue-shift for these dye-polymer conjugates. A similar shift is noted in their delayed emission spectra. This “green to blue” color change may be attributed to decreasing fluorophore–fluorophore interactions and polarity with increasing polymer molecular weight.

    14. Amorphous Infinite Coordination Polymer Microparticles: A New Class of Selective Hydrogen Storage Materials (pages 2105–2110)

      You-Moon Jeon, Gerasimos S. Armatas, Jungseok Heo, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis and Chad A. Mirkin

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702605

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      A new class of micrometer-sized amorphous infinite coordination particles is selectively prepared from the coordination chemistry of a metallo-salen building block and Zn2+ ions. The particles show moderately high H2 uptake and almost no N2 adsorption, even though they are amorphous and do not have the well-defined channels typically used to explain such selectivity in metal–organic framework systems.

    15. Chitosan Nanostructures with Controllable Morphology Produced by a Nonaqueous Electrochemical Approach (pages 2111–2115)

      Jingming Gong, Xianluo Hu, Ka-wai Wong, Zhi Zheng, Lin Yang, Woon-ming Lau and Ruxu Du

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701840

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chitosan nanowires (see figure) are successfully fabricated on a stainless steel substrate by a nonaqueous electrochemical route that does not require a template, catalyst, or surfactant. The nanoscale morphology of the final products – nanoflakes, nano wires, nanobelts, nanorods, and nanotubes – can be easily tuned by controlling the experimental conditions. This approach is ideal for exploring large-scale industrial production of chitosan nanomaterials.

    16. Fullerene Bisadducts for Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltages and Efficiencies in Polymer Solar Cells (pages 2116–2119)

      Martijn Lenes, Gert-Jan A. H. Wetzelaer, Floris B. Kooistra, Sjoerd C. Veenstra, Jan C. Hummelen and Paul W. M. Blom

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702438

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A fullerene bisadduct can enhance the efficiency of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. The bisadduct has a LUMO that is 100 meV higher compared to that of [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). This increases the open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthio phene) and bisadduct PCBM to 0.73 V, while maintaining high fill factors and currents.

    17. Metal–Insulator–Metal Transistors (pages 2120–2124)

      Peter Stallinga, V. A. L. Roy, Zong-Xiang Xu, Hai-Feng Xiang and Chi-Ming Che

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702525

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      A metal–insulator–metal field-effect transistor has been fabricated. The device performance was achieved by reducing the density of states by only partially covering the substrate, which increases the relative field effect. An infinite on–off ratio, no lower limit to device dimensions, a generally enhanced flexibility in design, and low production costs are all advantages of this device.

    18. Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs (pages 2125–2130)

      Shi-Jian Su, Takayuki Chiba, Takashi Takeda and Junji Kido

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701730

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      Two pyridine-containing triphenylbenzene derivatives of 1,3,5-tri(m-pyrid- 3-yl-phenyl)benzene (TmPyPB) and 1,3,5-tri(p-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl) benzene (TpPyPB) (see figure) with high electron mobility and high triplet energy level were designed and synthesized. Highly efficient blue and green phosphorescent OLEDs were achieved by using TmPyPB and TpPyPB as an electron-transport layer, respectively.

    19. A New Method for Post-Synthesis Coating of Zirconia on the Mesopore Walls of SBA-15 Without Pore Blocking (pages 2131–2136)

      Cheralathan Kanakkampalayan Krishnan, Takahiro Hayashi and Masaru Ogura

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702822

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      Zirconia coating of the mesopore walls of the mesoporous silica material SBA-15 is achieved by internal hydrolysis of a zirconia precursor, which is loaded inside the mesopores, using NH3/H2O vapor at elevated temperature and subsequent calcination (see figure). High loadings of zirconia, more than 30 wt%, can be coated on the mesopore walls without any pore blocking.

    20. Temperature-Light Dual Control of Clouding Behavior of an Oligo(ethylene glycol)-Diarylethene Hybrid System (pages 2137–2141)

      Takashi Hirose, Masahiro Irie and Kenji Matsuda

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702314

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      A photochromic diarylethene derivative having hexa(ethylene glycol) side chains connected by an amide group was synthesized and the thermo- and the photoresponsive behavior was investigated. The cloud-point temperature was varied in a controlled manner over a range of 23 to 45 °C by irradiation with the appropriate wavelength of light (see figure).

    21. Phthalocyanato Tin(IV) Dichloride: An Air-Stable, High-Performance, n-Type Organic Semiconductor with a High Field-Effect Electron Mobility (pages 2142–2144)

      De Song, Haibo Wang, Feng Zhu, Junliang Yang, Hongkun Tian, Yanhou Geng and Donghang Yan

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702439

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      Phthalocyanato tin(IV) dichloride, an axially dichloriniated MPc, is an air-stable high performance n-type organic semiconductor with a field-effect electron mobility of up to 0.30 cm2 V−1 s−1. This high mobility together with good device stability and commercial availability make it a most suitable n-type material for future organic thin-film transistor applications.

    22. Processing Matters: In situ Fabrication of Conducting Polymer Microsensors Enables Ultralow-Limit Gas Detection (pages 2145–2150)

      Mianqi Xue, Yang Zhang, Yanlian Yang and Tingbing Cao

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702864

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      A general method for the in situ fabricationof polythiophene micro structures adjacent to Au microelectrodes via a combination of nanotransfer printing and electric field induced polymerization is presented. The resulting polythiophene microsensor array has an ultralow detection limit (ppb, 10−9) for volatile organic compounds.

    23. Development of Novel Carbon Nanotube/Photopolymer Nanocomposites with High Conductivity and their Application to Nanoimprint Photolithography (pages 2151–2155)

      Tsuyohiko Fujigaya, Shinsuke Haraguchi, Takahiro Fukumaru and Naotoshi Nakashima

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701780

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      UV-curable monomers provide an ideal mixture for the fabrication of composite materials containing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in terms of dispersion stability and excellent processablity. Precise patterns of SWNT composites on a sub-micrometer scale have been manufactured by nanoimprint lithography using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp.

    24. Matrices of Acidic β-Sheet Peptides as Templates for Calcium Phosphate Mineralization (pages 2156–2161)

      Shlomit Segman-Magidovich, Haviv Grisaru, Tamar Gitli, Yael Levi-Kalisman and Hanna Rapaport

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702125

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      De novo designed amphiphilic and acidic β-sheet peptides in the form of monolayers and fibril assemblies are used as templates for monitoring calcium phosphate nucleation. The regular arrangement of negatively charged aspartic acid residues in a solution supersaturated with respect to apatite induces the nucleation of amorphous calcium phosphate, which over time transforms into apatite (see figure). This study demonstrates the bottom-to-top design and synthesis of new mineralized-peptide composite biomaterials.

    25. Direct Observation of Inversion Domain Boundaries of GaN on c-Sapphire at Sub-ångstrom Resolution (pages 2162–2165)

      Fude Liu, Ramon Collazo, Seiji Mita, Zlatko Sitar, Stephen J. Pennycook and Gerd Duscher

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702522

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      Inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) of GaN are studied by a high-resolution technique. The IDB separates adjacent domains of opposite polarity. The image shows a GaN IDB in the [bar;2110] projection. The theoretical IDB structure fits the experimentally obtained structure well. The inset is an image acquired from a very thin region on the right side of the IDB. It can indicate the polarity of GaN directly.

    26. A Polyaniline-Intercalated Layered Manganese Oxide Nanocomposite Prepared by an Inorganic/Organic Interface Reaction and Its High Electrochemical Performance for Li Storage (pages 2166–2170)

      Yong-Gang Wang, Wen Wu, Liang Cheng, Ping He, Cong-Xiao Wang and Yong-Yao Xia

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701708

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      Polyaniline is intercalated into layered manganese oxide in situ, at an aqueous/ organic interface. The prepared polymer-intercalated manganese oxide has several novel characteristics — a swelled layered structure, a uniform mesoporous structure, a typical nanosize, and a high surface area, resulting in a high electrochemical performance for Li storage.

    27. Printable, Flexible, and Stretchable Forms of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond with Applications in Thermal Management (pages 2171–2176)

      Tae-Ho Kim, Won Mook Choi, Dae-Hyeong Kim, Matthew A. Meitl, Etienne Menard, Hanqing Jiang, John A. Carlisle and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702434

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      Stretchable ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) ribbons are created by transfer printing these elements onto a prestrained elastomeric substrate of poly(dimethylsiloxane) followed by release of this prestrain. Transfer printing techniques applied to thin films of UNCD such as these expand the range of potential applications of diamond to include, as an example, thermal management in plastic electronic systems.

    28. Microfluidic Synthesis of Reversibly Swelling Porous Polymeric Microcapsules with Controlled Morphology (pages 2177–2182)

      Sinoj Abraham, Yun Hwan Park, Jin Kyu Lee, Chang-Sik Ha and Il Kim

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700456

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      Porous microcapsules formed from polymer-peptide conjugated macromolecules (see figure) are synthesized by the innovative conjunction of microfluidics with block copolymer self-assembly in flow- focusing microchannel. Reversibility of surface nanopores and encapsulation efficiency is investigated in detail.

    29. Monolayer Assembly of Oriented Zeolite Crystals on α-Al2O3 Supported Polymer Thin Films (pages 2183–2189)

      Baoquan Zhang, Ming Zhou and Xiufeng Liu

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701271

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      Silicalite-1 monolayers on α-Al2O3 supported polymer thin films with strong zeolite-polymer bonding, high surface coverage, uniform orientation in b-axis, and easy control of assembly could be manufactured by the stacking and sonication assembly or by the simpler manual assembly (see the figure). The methodology can be further applied to the monolayer assembly of various nano- and micro-sized particles with surface hydroxyl groups to porous solid supported polymer thin films.

    30. Cu-Doped ZnO Nanowires for Efficient and Multispectral Photodetection Applications (pages 2190–2194)

      Nikolai Kouklin

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701071

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      Cu-doped ZnO nanowires exhibiting high sensitivity to both UV and visible light are prepared by a vapor–liquid–solid method. The nanowires are highly resistive in the dark but exhibit several orders of magnitude enhancement in photoconductivity under UV and white-light irradiation because of an avalanche-type photocarrier multiplication effect, paving the way for their use in nanoscale photodetection applications.

    31. Printing and Aligning Mesoscale Patterns of Tobacco mosaic virus on Surfaces (pages 2195–2200)

      Sinan Balci, Dirk M. Leinberger, Mato Knez, Alexander M. Bittner, Fabian Boes, Anan Kadri, Christina Wege, Holger Jeske and Klaus Kern

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602879

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      Objects as large as whole virus particles can be printed after adsorption to siloxane stamps. Selective de-wetting of suspensions results in alignment and linear aggregation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particles on the stamps, and single-virus lines can be printed. The process consists of simply contacting the stamp with a flat substrate.

    32. Composite Films Based on Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays and a Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide) Hydrogel (pages 2201–2205)

      Zhaohui Yang, Zheng Cao, Hao Sun and Yan Li

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701964

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      Hydrogel/CNT-array composite films that retain the high alignment of CNTs in hydrogel matrix are prepared. The composites present unique fast wetting and dewetting behavior and show conductive sensitivity in temperature and humidity. They are expected to have potential applications as mild dewetting materials, high efficiency electrophoresis media, and functional components in water purification plants or temperature and humidity sensors.

    33. Molten Salt Synthesis and High Rate Performance of the “Desert-Rose” form of LiCoO2 (pages 2206–2210)

      Hailong Chen and Clare P. Grey

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702655

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The synthesis of a novel nanostructure of LiCoO2, and its performance as a cathode for a high-rate lithium ion battery, is described. The LiCoO2 nanostructure resembles the morphology of a known natural mineral: “desert rose” gypsum (inset of the figure). A range of measurement techniques are used to investigate the growth mechanism of this structure and the origin of its high rate charge/discharge properties.

    34. Self-Organized Buffer Layers in Organic Solar Cells (pages 2211–2216)

      Qingshuo Wei, Takeshi Nishizawa, Keisuke Tajima and Kazuhito Hashimoto

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200792876

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      A fullerene derivative with a fluorocarbon chain is applied in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells (see figure). When a small amount of F-PCBM is mixed in, it spontaneously migrates to the surface of the organic layer during spin-casting owing to the low surface energy of the fluorocarbon. A very thin buffer layer between the polymer and the metal electrode is formed in one step, resulting in improved photovoltaic performance.

    35. High-Mobility Ambipolar Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Polymer Field-Effect Transistors (pages 2217–2224)

      Lukas Bürgi, Mathieu Turbiez, Reto Pfeiffer, Frank Bienewald, Hans-Jörg Kirner and Carsten Winnewisser

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702775

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A polymer semiconductor with ambipolar charge transport properties, BBTDPP1, is presented. Solution-processed ambipolar field-effect transistors based on this material exhibit hole and electron mobilities of 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1 and up to 0.09 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. Near-infrared light emission from top-gate as well as bottom-gate ambipolar field-effect transistors based on BBTDPP1 is also reported.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Index
    1. Polystannanes: Polymers of a Molecular, Jacketed Metal–Wire Structure (pages 2225–2229)

      Fabien Choffat, Paul Smith and Walter Caseri

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702268

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polystannanes, organometallic polymers with a backbone of covalently connected tin atoms, can be regarded as molecular metal wires surrounded by a jacket of organic matter (see figure). Polymers that differ in the length of the alkyl side groups feature reversible phase transitions into liquid-crystalline states (some of them even below room temperature) and are oriented either parallel or perpendicular to external driving forces, depending on the length of the alkyl substituents.

  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Research News
    7. Index

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