Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 2

January, 2008

Volume 20, Issue 2

Pages 215–370

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Dynamic Imaging of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Systemic Circulation and Urinary Excretion (Adv. Mater. 2/2008)

      L. Lacerda, A. Soundararajan, R. Singh, G. Pastorin, K. T. Al-Jamal, J. Turton, P. Frederik, M. A. Herrero, S. Li, A. Bao, D. Emfietzoglou, S. Mather, W. T. Phillips, M. Prato, A. Bianco, B. Goins and K. Kostarelos

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890002

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Intravenously administered multi-walled carbon nanotubes, functionalized with DTPA and radiolabeled with Indium-111, were dynamically tracked in vivo using a microSingle Photon Emission Tomography scanner. Imaging showed that nanotubes enter the systemic blood circulation and within 5 min begin to permeate through the renal glomerular filtration system into the bladder.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Controlling Morphology in Polymer–Fullerene Mixtures (Adv. Mater. 2/2008)

      A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Methods to determine the agglomerated–amorphous ratio of P3HT in P3HT:PCBM solar cell mixtures, and control the degree of agglomeration–crystallinity of P3HT in the final device using a solvent mixing method and no further heat-treatment or preparation of the polymer are presented. As-cast devices have an efficiency of ∼4%.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 2/2008 (pages 215–224)

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890000

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
    1. Dynamic Imaging of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Systemic Circulation and Urinary Excretion (pages 225–230)

      L. Lacerda, A. Soundararajan, R. Singh, G. Pastorin, K. T. Al-Jamal, J. Turton, P. Frederik, M. A. Herrero, S. Li, A. Bao, D. Emfietzoglou, S. Mather, W. T. Phillips, M. Prato, A. Bianco, B. Goins and K. Kostarelos

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702334

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Intravenously administered multi-walled carbon nanotubes, functionalized with DTPA and radiolabeled with Indium-111, were dynamically tracked in vivo using a microSingle Photon Emission Tomography scanner. Imaging showed that nanotubes enter the systemic blood circulation and within 5 min begin to permeate through the renal glomerular filtration system into the bladder.

    2. One-Nanometer-Thick Seed Layer of Unilamellar Nanosheets Promotes Oriented Growth of Oxide Crystal Films (pages 231–235)

      T. Shibata, K. Fukuda, Y. Ebina, T. Kogure and T. Sasaki

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701381

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      Room-temperature fabrication of an ultimately thin seed layer using 2D oxide nanosheets is demonstrated. Flat nanosheets are tiled to form a highly organized monolayer with a thickness of ca. 1 nm on a glass substrate (see figure). Monolayer films of nanosheets such as Ca2Nb3O10 (2D square lattice) and MnO2 (2D hexagonal) successfully promote oriented film growth of oxide crystals such as SrTiO3 (cubic), TiO2 (tetragonal), and ZnO (hexagonal).

    3. Biodegradable Colloidal Gels as Moldable Tissue Engineering Scaffolds (pages 236–239)

      Q. Wang, L. Wang, M. S. Detamore and C. Berkland

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702099

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      Colloidal gels are fabricated using oppositely charged, biodegradable poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles that interact to form stable 3D structures. Malleability under shear and strong static cohesion facilitate the fabrication of shape- specific tissue-engineering scaffolds.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Controlling Morphology in Polymer–Fullerene Mixtures (pages 240–245)

      A. J. Moulé and K. Meerholz

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701519

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Methods to determine the agglomerated–amorphous ratio of P3HT in P3HT:PCBM solar cell mixtures, and control the degree of agglomeration–crystallinity of P3HT in the final device using a solvent mixing method and no further heat-treatment or preparation of the polymer are presented. As-cast devices have an efficiency of ∼4%.

    5. An Efficient Route to Mesoporous Silica Films with Perpendicular Nanochannels (pages 246–251)

      S. Nagarajan, M. Li, R. A. Pai, J. K. Bosworth, P. Busch, D.-M. Smilgies, C. K. Ober, T. P. Russell and J. J. Watkins

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701766

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      Mesoporous silica films with cylindrical pores oriented normal to the substrate are prepared by selective deposition of silica within the poly(hydroxy styrene) domains of poly(α-methyl styrene-b- hydroxy styrene) template films using supercritical carbon dioxide as a delivery medium. Atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (see figure) studies confirm the vertical alignment of the cylindrical pores.

    6. Polarized Luminescence from Aligned Samples of Nematogenic Lanthanide Complexes (pages 252–257)

      Y. G. Galyametdinov, A. A. Knyazev, V. I. Dzhabarov, T. Cardinaels, K. Driesen, C. Görller-Walrand and K. Binnemans

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701714

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      Lanthanide β-diketonate complexes are found to exhibit a smectic A and a nematic phase over a broad temperature range. Polarized luminescence is observed for the europium(III) complex dissolved in the nematic liquid-crystal mixture E7 and for the aligned vitrified mesophase.

    7. Self-Supported Formation of Needlelike Co3O4 Nanotubes and Their Application as Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes (pages 258–262)

      X. W. Lou, D. Deng, J. Y. Lee, J. Feng and L. A. Archer

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702412

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      A one-step, self-supported topotactic transformation approach for synthesizing electrochemically active Co3O4 needlelike nanotubes is reported. Used as the active material in the negative electrode of a rechargeable lithium ion battery, the Co3O4 nanotubes manifest ultrahigh Li storage capacity with improved cycle life and rate capability. These features are discussed in terms of the unique structure of the materials.

    8. Fabrication of Oriented Multilayers of Photosystem I Proteins on Solid Surfaces by Auto-Metallization (pages 263–266)

      L. Frolov, O. Wilner, C. Carmeli and I. Carmeli

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701474

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      AFM phase image of PS I (Top) and platinized PS I (bottom) monolayers. The Pt patches serve as junctions for fabrication of oriented multilayer by covalent binding of cysteine mutants through the formation of sulfide bonds with the Pt. A larger absorption cross section and the serial arrangement resulted in an increase in the photopotential generated by the dry multilayers.

    9. Preparation and Surface Activity of Single-Crystalline NiO(111) Nanosheets with Hexagonal Holes: A Semiconductor Nanospanner (pages 267–271)

      J. Hu, K. Zhu, L. Chen, H. Yang, Z. Li, A. Suchopar and R. Richards

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701389

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      Semiconductor single crystalline NiO nanosheets with well-defined hexagonal holes having the appearance of a nanometer-scale spanner are prepared via an efficient wet chemical route. The main surfaces of the NiO nanosheets are (111) facets and the sizes of both the sheets and the holes can be controlled. The NiO(111) nanosheets with hexagonal holes showed unusual activity for low temperature methanol decomposition.

    10. Superelasticity and Shape Memory in Micro- and Nanometer-scale Pillars (pages 272–278)

      J. San Juan, M. L. Nó and C. A. Schuh

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701527

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      Superelasticity and shape memory down to the nanometer scale are successfully demonstrated in micro- and nanometer-scale pillars of a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy. Microcompression tests show superelastic behavior with recoverable strains above 5 % during more than 100 cycles. In addition, shape memory behavior with complete shape recovery at both the micro- and nanometer scales is also observed, opening the door to a new generation of smart micro and nano devices.

    11. Sequence-Dependent Fluorescence of DNA-Hosted Silver Nanoclusters (pages 279–283)

      E. G. Gwinn, P. O'Neill, A. J. Guerrero, D. Bouwmeester and D. K. Fygenson

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702380

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      DNA-bound silver nanoemitters reside in single-stranded regions of the host DNA. Their fluorescence is sensitive to both the DNA base sequence and its secondary structure. Fluorescence from individual emitters hosted by DNA “hairpins”, which are suitable for incorporation into DNA scaffolds, is detectable using standard epifluorescence techniques.

    12. Self-Assembly of a Micrometers-Long One-Dimensional Network of Cemented Au Nanoparticles (pages 284–287)

      V. Maheshwari, J. Kane and R. F. Saraf

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700999

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      One-dimensional Au nanoparticles connected by ionic linkers self-assemble into a micrometer-scale network. Reactions between linker ions reinforce the assembly and lead to the formation of a continuous network. This continuous network demonstrates room-temperature Coulomb-blockade characteristics that are indicative of electron transport along the 1D pathways.

    13. Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Self-Assembled Carbon Nanofoams (pages 288–292)

      J. García-Martínez, T. M. Lancaster and J. Y. Ying

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602977

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      A new surfactant-templated carbon material, carbon nanofoam (CNF), has been synthesized with a semicrystalline and conductive framework, high surface area and interconnected porous structure, and prepared in a wide variety of bulk shapes and forms. CNF was also successfully applied as a support for palladium in the Heck coupling reaction. Pd/CNF catalyst exhibited negligible Pd cluster growth and agglomeration, and retained high activity even after multiple runs.

    14. Nanofluidic Bipolar Transistors (pages 293–297)

      E. B. Kalman, I. Vlassiouk and Z. S. Siwy

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701867

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      The preparation of a bipolar ionic transistor based on a single hourglass-shaped nanopore with tailored surface charge is shown. The narrow opening of the pore was between 2 and 6 nm. The gate in our device and the device on/off behavior are controlled chemically by changing the surface charge on the pore walls. This was accomplished by changing pH and concentrations of the electrolyte.

    15. Thermophysical Properties of Conjugated Polyelectrolytes (pages 298–302)

      J. H. Ortony, R. Q. Yang, J. Z. Brzezinski, L. Edman, T.-Q. Nguyen and G. C. Bazan

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701627

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      The thermophysical properties of cationic conjugated polymers and oligomers are characterized, and the extent of hygroscopicity is explored. The rate of moisture absorption, water affinity, and water content are important properties to consider for incorporation into optoelectronic devices. Guidelines for controlling water absorption via molecular design are also provided.

    16. Stress-Driven Surface Topography Evolution in Nanocrystalline Al Thin Films (pages 303–308)

      D. S. Gianola, C. Eberl, X. M. Cheng and K. J. Hemker

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701607

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stress-assisted grain growth at room temperature is identified as a plastic deformation mechanism in nanocrystalline thin films. Unique surface relief is attributed to the direct application of stress-coupled grain boundary migration theory. The figure shows a false-color SEM image of surface topography and an AFM height profile as a result of stress-assisted grain growth. A strategy for tailoring the mechanical properties of nanostructured metals is shown.

    17. Fabrication and Field-Emission Properties of Large-Area Nanostructures of the Organic Charge-Transfer Complex Cu-TCNAQ (pages 309–313)

      S. Cui, Y. Li, Y. Guo, H. Liu, Y. Song, J. Xu, J. Lv, M. Zhu and D. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701617

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      Large-area nanostructured charge-transfer complexes of Cu-TCNAQ are fabricated through a facile dipping method. The well-aligned nanowalls array exhibits excellent field emission properties. The maximal current density of the nanowalls is higher than 11 mA cm–2.

    18. Photoswitchable Organic Nanofibers (pages 314–318)

      F. Di Benedetto, E. Mele, A. Camposeo, A. Athanassiou, R. Cingolani and D. Pisignano

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700980

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      A photoswitchable nanomaterial is presented, electrospun organic nanofibers based on 1',3'-dihydro-1',3',3'-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro [2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-(2H)-indole]. The switching properties of the nanofibers were investigated by studying the evolution of absorbance with different UV exposure times, photoluminescence lifetime, cyclic photoisomerization, and reversible wettability. The unique potentialities of photoswitchable nanofibers for achieving enhanced control of surface wettability are shown.

    19. Growth of Thick MgB2 Films by Impinging-Jet Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (pages 319–323)

      D. R. Lamborn, R. H. T. Wilke, Q. Li, X. Xi, D. W. Snyder and J. M. Redwing

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701835

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      Thick MgB2 films are grown using a novel impinging-jet hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition process. An increased amount of the boron source gas generates high growth rates. Superconducting properties of the thick films are comparable to previous results from other processes, which indicate that this is a promising new process for MgB2 deposition for coated conductor applications, such as wires and tapes for MRI magnets.

    20. Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Diode using Hexaazatriphenylene Hexacarbonitrile in the Intermediate Connector (pages 324–329)

      L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks and D. L. Comfort

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700454

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      Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with an organic–organic intermediate connector, consisting of an n-type doped electron-transporting layer (e.g. Li-doped Alq as shown in the figure) and nondoped hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN), exhibit reduced drive voltage, improved voltage stability, and improved power efficiency. Moreover, this intermediate connector can be formed by thermal evaporation at temperatures lower than 300 °C, which simplifies the fabrication process of the OLEDs.

    21. Direct Delivery and Submicrometer Patterning of DNA by a Nanofountain Probe (pages 330–334)

      K.-H. Kim, R. G. Sanedrin, A. M. Ho, S. W. Lee, N. Moldovan, C. A. Mirkin and H. D. Espinosa

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701254

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      Biomolecular patterning is achieved using a nanofountain probe (NFP) that delivers a liquid solution of DNA through a volcano-like aperture to a substrate (see figure). Spot features as small as 200 nm in diameter can be routinely made at room temperature over a wide humidity range. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with sequences complementary to the patterned DNA demonstrate that biological activity is retained by the deposited features.

    22. An New Avenue to Nonfouling Materials (pages 335–338)

      S. Chen and S. Jiang

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701164

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      Nonfouling materials are of great importance for numerous applications. A simple method is introduced to prepare nonfouling materials and surfaces (see figure) with unique properties from a variety of desirable functional groups. Materials with a uniform distribution of mixed charged groups at the nanometer scale, similar to zwitterionic materials, are excellent candidates for use as nonfouling materials.

    23. In Situ Self-Assembly of Thin ZnO Nanoplatelets into Hierarchical Mesocrystal Microtubules with Surface Grafting of Nanorods: A General Strategy towards Hollow Mesocrystal Structures (pages 339–342)

      M.-S. Mo, S. H. Lim, Y.-W. Mai, R.-K. Zheng and S. P. Ringer

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701137

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      A general Ostwald ripening process combined with colloidal soft-matter self-assembly has been developed for coaxing the solid nanoparticle rods into the tubular mesocrystals: self-assembled ZnO microtubules with surface grafting of nanorods, in which the polyelectrolyte is exploited to tailor the forces between the colloidal ZnO nanoparticles and manipulate nanoparticle self-assembly. The strategy presented here can readily be extended to other soft-matter chemical systems that afford colloidal processing.

    24. Inkjet Printing of Narrow Conductive Tracks on Untreated Polymeric Substrates (pages 343–345)

      T. H. J. van Osch, J. Perelaer, A. W. M. de Laat and U. S. Schubert

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701876

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      Small conductive tracks are created by direct inkjet-printing of an ink with 30 nm silver particles onto flexible and transparent untreated polyarylate foils with a low surface energy. Lines with a diameter as narrow as 40 micrometers are obtained. After sintering, the conductivity of the obtained silver tracks is 13 to 23 % that of bulk silver. Such direct inkjet-printing may be applied in plastic electronics, where prestructuring or pretreatment of the substrate should be avoided to reduce production costs.

    25. Chemical Nanostructures of Multifunctional Self-Assembled Monolayers (pages 346–351)

      N. Herzer, S. Hoeppener, U. S. Schubert, H. Fuchs and U. C. Fischer

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702306

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      The fabrication of multifunctional surface patterns by employing removable metal barrier nanostructures and site-selective assembly of chemical active monolayers is reported. Latex bead gold projection patterns serve as barrier structures to obtain high-fidelity nanostructures consisting of n-octadecyl/n-thiolundecyl multifunctional self-assembled monolayers (NanoMuSes). Large scale, high resolution, stable and addressable chemically active surface patterns are obtained.

    26. Potassium Tungsten Bronze Nanowires: Polarized Micro-Raman Scattering of Individual Nanowires and Electron Field Emission from Nanowire Films (pages 352–356)

      Z. Zheng, B. Yan, J. Zhang, Y. You, C. T. Lim, Z. Shen and T. Yu

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701514

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      Potassium tungsten bronze nanowires have been successfully fabricated by the hot-plate technique. Polarized micro-Raman scattering studies on the individual nanowires demonstrate single-crystalline properties. Such tungsten bronze nanowire films exhibit impressive electron field emission properties. It is believed that with further improvements potassium tungsten bronze nanostructures could be one of the potential candidates for use in future field emission electron sources and displays (FEDs).

    27. Conductive Carbon Nanotube Composite Microprobes (pages 357–362)

      O. Yaglioglu, R. Martens, A. J. Hart and A. H. Slocum

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700075

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      A simple, flexible, and robust way of fabricating fully functional electromechanical carbon nanotube (CNT) microprobes, by transferring as-grown CNT columns onto a conductive substrate using a conductive epoxy (see figure), is shown. The CNT microprobes are approximately 500 times stronger than as-grown pillars and can perform up to 200 cycles without degradation in electrical or mechanical properties.

    28. Sparse Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Electrode Arrays for Liquid-Crystal Photonic Devices (pages 363–366)

      T. D. Wilkinson, X. Wang, K. B. K. Teo and W. I. Milne

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701910

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      A new class of devices based on a hybrid combination of two different materials, nanotubes and liquid crystals, is presented. An array of individual vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes creates a Gaussian electric field profile which reorients a nematic liquid crystal. The variation in refractive index acts like a graded index optical element which can be varied electrically. Results are presented from a device fabricated with 10 μm pitch micro-optical elements.

  5. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index
  6. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Book Reviews
    7. Index

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