Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 24

December 17, 2008

Volume 20, Issue 24

Pages 4611–4896

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Stop-Flow Lithography of Colloidal, Glass, and Silicon Microcomponents (Adv. Mater. 24/2008)

      Robert F. Shepherd, Priyadarshi Panda, Zhihao Bao, Kenneth H. Sandhage, T. Alan Hatton, Jennifer A. Lewis and Patrick S. Doyle

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890101

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A grand challenge in microfabrication is the creation of simple and complex 3D microcomponents of varying composition from colloidal building blocks. Jennifer Lewis, Patrick Doyle, and co-workers demonstrate on p. 4734 that colloidal, silicon, and glass microcomponents can be rapidly patterned by stop flow lithography (SFL). This work will enable fundamental studies of granular packing as well as provide a low-cost route to MEMS devices. Cover artwork by R. Shepherd, S. Eisenmann, and J. A. Lewis.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Enhanced Two-Photon Absorption of Organic Chromophores: Theoretical and Experimental Assessments (Adv. Mater. 24/2008)

      Francesca Terenziani, Claudine Katan, Ekaterina Badaeva, Sergei Tretiak and Mireille Blanchard-Desce

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890102

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-photon absorption (TPA) offers a rich playground for development of novel optical multifunctional technologies. Related experimental and theoretical methodologies are reviewed by Claudine Katan, Sergei Tretiak, and co-workers on p. 4641, with special attention to sources of errors that yield improper evaluation of TPA cross sections. Trends leading to large TPA responses are illustrated and thoroughly analyzed through a set of typical organic TPA-fluorophores including branched systems.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 24/2008) (pages 4611–4625)

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890103

  4. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Materials Science in the Developing World: Challenges and Perspectives for Africa (pages 4627–4640)

      Federico Rosei, Lionel Vayssieres and Patrick Mensah

      Article first published online: 12 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200802222

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Materials science research and education in developing countries is the key to sustainable technological development. It is difficult to predict whether nanotechnology will make a difference in improving the quality of life both in developed and developing countries; nevertheless, materials science in general has undoubtedly fulfilled this role since prehistoric times and can continue to do so, largely because of its multidisciplinary approach and broad applications.

  5. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Enhanced Two-Photon Absorption of Organic Chromophores: Theoretical and Experimental Assessments (pages 4641–4678)

      Francesca Terenziani, Claudine Katan, Ekaterina Badaeva, Sergei Tretiak and Mireille Blanchard-Desce

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800402

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-photon absorption (TPA) offers a rich playground for development of novel optical multifunctional technologies. Related experimental and theoretical methodologies are reviewed with special attention on sources of errors that yield improper evaluation of TPA cross sections. Trends leading to large TPA responses are illustrated and thoroughly analyzed through a set of typical organic TPA-fluorophores including branched systems.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Tunable Magnetism in Carbon-Ion-Implanted Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (pages 4679–4683)

      Huihao Xia, Weifeng Li, You Song, Xinmei Yang, Xiangdong Liu, Mingwen Zhao, Yueyuan Xia, Chen Song, Tian-Wei Wang, Dezhang Zhu, Jinlong Gong and Zhiyuan Zhu

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801205

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stable, room-temperature ferromagnetism in carbon— more precisely, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite — with Curie temperature as high as 460 K is reported. The magnetization can be easily tuned by controlling the low-energy carbon ion implantation dose used to create the samples. Theory indicates that the ferromagnetic order likely results from itinerant π-electrons from defects (see figure).

    2. Low-Temperature Deterministic Growth of Ge Nanowires Using Cu Solid Catalysts (pages 4684–4690)

      Kibum Kang, Dong An Kim, Hyun-Seung Lee, Cheol-Joo Kim, Jee-Eun Yang and Moon-Ho Jo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801764

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cu-Catalytic Growth of Ge Nanowires: Low temperature, deterministic growth characteristics are available by the Cu-catalytic growth. The low-temperature growth is accessible at as low as 200 °C on polymer substrates, and the epitaxial growth is also possible on single-crystalline substrates with the narrow diameter distribution of 7 nm, directly templated from those of Cu catalysts.

    3. Combinatorial Screening of Biomimetic Protein Affinity Materials (pages 4691–4697)

      Trent R. Northen, Matthew P. Greving and Neal W. Woodbury

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800567

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A patterned combinatorial library of peptide-grafted polymer affinity materials is screened for target protein binding. In situ light-directed synthesis is used to produce high-density libraries that allow for the screening in parallel within an area less than 1 cm2. From these libraries, specific peptide/polymer combinations are identified with very high target protein affinity, enabling facile detection of the target at concentrations in the low picomolar range in the presence of excess competitor.

    4. Binding, Internalization, and Antigen Presentation of Vaccine-Loaded Nanoengineered Capsules in Blood (pages 4698–4703)

      Robert De Rose, Alexander N. Zelikin, Angus P. R. Johnston, Amy Sexton, Siow-Feng Chong, Christina Cortez, William Mulholland, Frank Caruso and Stephen J. Kent

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801826

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoengineered microcapsules (shown in green) can be used to encapsulate vaccine antigens conferring protection of the cargo until the capsules are taken up by specialized antigen presenting cells in human blood such as dendritic cells (cell membrane in red, nucleus in blue). This technique offers potential applications for in vivo vaccine delivery.

    5. Chemical Solution Route to Conformal Phosphor Coatings on Nanostructures (pages 4704–4707)

      Eve Bauer, Alex H. Mueller, Igor Usov, Natalya Suvorova, Michael T. Janicke, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Mark R. Waterland, Quanxi X. Jia, Anthony K. Burrell and T. Mark McCleskey

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800798

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We have demonstrated the ability to apply thin conformal films onto complex nanostructures using a polymer assisted deposition technique. Sequestering the metal by binding it to a polymer results in a bottom-up growth process that leads to conformal film deposition. We have deposited a thin film of the phosphor Eu:YVO4 on 60 μm thick anodiscs® with 200 nm pores resulting in highly luminescent nanostructures.

    6. Downscaling of Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a Polyelectrolyte Gate Insulator (pages 4708–4713)

      Lars Herlogsson, Yong-Young Noh, Ni Zhao, Xavier Crispin, Henning Sirringhaus and Magnus Berggren

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801756

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A polyelectrolyte is used as gate insulator material in organic field-effect transistors with self-aligned inkjet printed sub–micrometer channels. The small separation of the charges in the electric double layer at the electrolyte-semiconductor interface, which builds up in tens of microseconds, provides a very high transverse electric field in the channel that effectively suppresses short-channel effects at low applied gate voltages.

    7. Macroporous Ceramics from Particle-stabilized Emulsions (pages 4714–4718)

      Ilke Akartuna, André R. Studart, Elena Tervoort and Ludwig J. Gauckler

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801888

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Macroporous ceramics are fabricated using emulsions stabilized with particles of various chemical compositions. Stabilization with particles hinders extensive droplet coalescence during solvent extraction, allowing for drying and sintering of the emulsions directly into macroporous materials in the absence of any chemical reaction.

    8. Fluorescent Gold Nanoparticle Superlattices (pages 4719–4723)

      Naoki Nishida, Edakkattuparambil S. Shibu, Hiroshi Yao, Tsugao Oonishi, Keisaku Kimura and Thalappil Pradeep

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800632

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      3D superlattices of fluorescent gold nanoparticles are prepared at an air/water interface. The hexagonal assembly extends over several micrometers, and crystals of triangular morphology are imaged using the fluorescence emission of the monolayers protecting the nanoparticles (see figure). Surprisingly, the superlattices are fluorescent even though the fluorescein derivative is close to the metallic core and strong quenching is expected.

    9. Hydrogen Sensing with Subwavelength Optical Waveguides via Porous Silsesquioxane-Palladium Nanocomposites (pages 4724–4727)

      Donald J. Sirbuly, Sonia E. Létant and Timothy V. Ratto

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800890

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Subwavelength optical waveguides coated with porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites are used to detect hydrogen gas. This compact waveguide sensing platform shows extremely fast response times over short interaction lengths and can be reused by stripping/re-depositing the chemo-responsive nanoparticle coatings.

    10. Exploration of a Standing Mesochannel System with Antimatter/Matter Atomic Probes (pages 4728–4733)

      Hiroyuki K. M. Tanaka, Yusuke Yamauchi, Toshikazu Kurihara, Yoshio Sakka, Kazuyuki Kuroda and Allen P. Mills Jr.

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800395

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Positronium, a system consisting of an electron and its antimatter, a positron, offers a new technique to explore vertical accessibility and connectivity. Here, we show how this technique can be used to map out the vertical profile of mesoporous silica channel systems by comparing a standing (perpendicular to the substrate) 2D hexagonal with a lying (parallel to the substrate) 2D hexagonal mesoporous film.

    11. Stop-Flow Lithography of Colloidal, Glass, and Silicon Microcomponents (pages 4734–4739)

      Robert F. Shepherd, Priyadarshi Panda, Zhihao Bao, Kenneth H. Sandhage, T. Alan Hatton, Jennifer A. Lewis and Patrick S. Doyle

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stop-flow lithography (SFL) is used for patterning colloidal building blocks into controlled structures (gears and other shapes) at rates that exceed 103 min−1 using an index-matched system composed of silica microspheres suspended in a photocurable acrylamide solution as shown in the figure. These structures are dried and then transformed, in batch, at elevated temperatures into microcomponents composed of porous or glassy silicon oxide or porous silicon via magnesiothermic reduction.

    12. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity in a Hybrid Graphite Nanoplatelet – Carbon Nanotube Filler for Epoxy Composites (pages 4740–4744)

      Aiping Yu, Palanisamy Ramesh, Xiaobo Sun, Elena Bekyarova, Mikhail E. Itkis and Robert C Haddon

      Article first published online: 23 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800401

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A nanoscale hybrid filler comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite nanoplatelets provides a synergistic effect in the enhancement of thermal conductivity of epoxy composites, which is ascribed to the formation of a more efficient percolating network with significantly reduced thermal interface resistance.

    13. Close-Packed Gold-Nanocrystal Assemblies Deposited with Complete Selectivity into Lithographic Trenches (pages 4745–4750)

      S. Ahmed and Kevin M. Ryan

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Close-packed gold-nanocrystal assemblies are selectively deposited into trenches (300 nm × 300 nm) fabricated by electron-beam lithography. The base of the trenches consists of highly doped silicon with 30 nm silica walls. The assemblies are formed using electric-field mediated deposition of8 nm gold spheres from organic solvents.

    14. The Mobility of Carbon Atoms in Graphitic Nanoparticles Studied by the Relaxation of Strain in Carbon Onions (pages 4751–4754)

      Yanjie Gan and Florian Banhart

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800574

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon onions can be set in a state of heavy self-compression when irradiated with an electron beam. Annealing at high temperature relaxes the structure by an exchange of atoms between the shells. This gives us the possibility tostudy atom jumps quantitatively.

    15. Photocurrent Enhancement in Polythiophene- and Alkanethiol-Modified ZnO Solar Cells (pages 4755–4759)

      Todd C. Monson, Matthew T. Lloyd, Dana C. Olson, Yun-Ju Lee and Julia W. P. Hsu

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801082

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photocurrent enhancement and improvement in solar cell performance are found when the interface between ZnO and polythiophene layers is modified with insulating alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. This result is correlated with increased structural order in the polymer and interchain contributions in the photocurrent, suggesting that improved exciton diffusion or reduced electron-hole recombination can outweigh the impedance in electron transfer at the heterojunction interface.

    16. Patterning Thin Film Mechanical Properties to Drive Assembly of Complex 3D Structures (pages 4760–4764)

      Noy Bassik, George M. Stern, Mustapha Jamal and David H. Gracias

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801759

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thin films of metal and polymer are patterned with varying geometry, moduli, and initial stresses to fold into complex 3D structures. In the schematic (top) the rigid segments, flexible hinges, and hollow areas are visible. In the optical and fluorescent micrograph below, cells were cultured on the self-assembled structures, and fluoresce green as they are alive.

    17. Multicolor Core/Shell-Structured Upconversion Fluorescent Nanoparticles (pages 4765–4769)

      Zhengquan Li, Yong Zhang and Shan Jiang

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Core/shell-structured silica/NaYF4 nanospheres featuring uniform silica coatings are synthesized using a facile, user-friendly method. Multicolor nanospheres are produced by encapsulation of organic dyes or quantum dots in the silica shell, and upconversion fluorescence is generated based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET).

      Corrected by:

      Apology: Multicolor Core/Shell-Structured Upconversion Fluorescent Nanoparticles

      Vol. 21, Issue 47, Article first published online: 15 DEC 2009

    18. Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes: A Novel Solid Substrate for Microfluidic Immunoassays for HIV (pages 4770–4775)

      Dayong Yang, Xin Niu, Yingyi Liu, Yang Wang, Xuan Gu, Lusheng Song, Rui Zhao, Liying Ma, Yiming Shao and Xingyu Jiang

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801302

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The combination of electrospun nanofibrous membranes and microfluidic channels dramatically improves the sensitivities of HIV immunoassays in microfluidic channels. Simplicity and effectiveness of the new system can potentially pave the way for inexpensive, portable and highly sensitive diagnostic devices.

    19. Giant Magnetoelectric Response from a Piezoelectric/Magnetostrictive Laminated Composite Combined with a Piezoelectric Transformer (pages 4776–4779)

      Yanmin Jia, Haosu Luo, Xiangyong Zhao and Feifei Wang

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800565

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Combining a piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composite with a piezoelectric transformer (see figure) generates a giant magnetoelectric (ME) response. The output ME voltage is amplified by the additional piezoelectric transformer layer. The outstanding advantages of the proposed structure include giant ME voltage output, high efficiency, no power consumption, and short response time.

    20. Is Rhenium Diboride a Superhard Material? (pages 4780–4783)

      Jiaqian Qin, Duanwei He, Jianghua Wang, Leiming Fang, Li Lei, Yongjun Li, Juan Hu, Zili Kou and Yan Bi

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801471

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The average measured Hv for polycrystalline ReB2 and Ti–B composites under different loads shows that the tendency of Hv to decrease becomes weak for large loads, and the measured hardness of ReB2 is always lower than that of Ti–B composites. For comparison, the results from Chung et al. were inserted into the figure.

    21. Tracing the Effect of Slow Photons in Photoisomerization of Azobenzene (pages 4784–4788)

      Jennifer I. L. Chen and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801833

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effects of photonic properties on an organic photochemical reaction are traced out by monitoring the wavelength-dependent rate of photoisomerization of azobenzene tethered to silica opals of different sphere sizes. Optical enhancements arising from slow photons at both the blue- and red-edge of the photonic stop band are observed.

    22. High-Sensitivity Solid-State Pb(Core)/ZnO(Shell) Nanothermometers Fabricated by a Facile Galvanic Displacement Method (pages 4789–4792)

      Chiu-Yen Wang, Nan-Wei Gong and Lih-Juann Chen

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solid-Pb-filled ZnO nanotubes are synthesized and tested for use as nanothermometers. The expansion of the filling with increasing temperature (see figure) — or the corresponding changes in capacitance — can be measured and related to temperature. The advantages of this nanothermometer are extremely low fabrication costs, superior reliability, and lower demands on structural integrity of the outer shell compared to nanothermometers based on liquid fillings.

    23. Fabrication of Ultrathin Single-Crystal Diamond Membranes (pages 4793–4798)

      Barbara A. Fairchild, Paolo Olivero, Sergey Rubanov, Andrew D. Greentree, Felix Waldermann, Robert A. Taylor, Ian Walmsley, Jason M. Smith, Shane Huntington, Brant C. Gibson, David N. Jamieson and Steven Prawer

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801460

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sub-micrometer layers of single-crystal diamond suitable for subsequent processing are fabricated. The method employed is a significant enabling technology for nanomechanical and photonic structures incorporating color centers. The process uses a novel double-implant process, annealing, and chemical etching to produce membranes. The thinnest layers achieved to date are 210 nm thick.

    24. Ultrarapid Transient-liquid-phase Bonding of Al2O3Ceramics (pages 4799–4803)

      Sung M. Hong, Christopher C. Bartlow, Thomas B. Reynolds, Joseph T. McKeown and Andreas M. Glaeser

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801550

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An effective multilayer interlayer technology for rapid transient-liquid-phase joining of advanced ceramics is demonstrated. Interlayers designed to exhibit rapid interdiffusion, chemical homogenization, and liquid film disappearance, enable rapid and reliable joining of ceramics at reduced temperatures while preserving high-temperature use capability. Processing times as short as 5 min at 1400 °C yield interlayers with a remelt temperature >2200 °C.

    25. Optically Responsive and Mechanically Tunable Colloid-In-Liquid Crystal Gels that Support Growth of Fibroblasts (pages 4804–4809)

      Ankit Agarwal, Elise Huang, Sean Palecek and Nicholas L. Abbott

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800932

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Whereas low molecular weight liquid crystals (LCs) are too soft to support the culture of fibroblast cells, gels formed by polystyrene microparticles dispersed in LCs can be mechanically tuned to support the cell culture. These self-supporting gels can be readily molded, thus facilitating their use for cell culture, and they contain micrometer-sized domains of LCs that can be oriented by interactions at the surfaces confining the gels.

    26. Donor-Acceptor Oligothiophenes as Low Optical Gap Chromophores for Photovoltaic Applications (pages 4810–4815)

      Ping Fang Xia, Xin Jiang Feng, Jianping Lu, Sai-Wing Tsang, Raluca Movileanu, Ye Tao and Man Shing Wong

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703032

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Extended donor-acceptor oligothiophenes exhibit a narrow optical energy gap in combination with strong light absorption and good intermolecular ππ stacking in the solid state for efficient charge transport. Bilayer photovoltaic devices utilizing these oligomers as p-type semiconducting photosensitizers afford high power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.7%.

    27. Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Oxide Derivatized Mutant Cowpea Mosaic Virus Hybrid Nanoparticles (pages 4816–4820)

      Alfredo A. Martinez-Morales, Nathaniel G. Portney, Yu Zhang, Giuseppe Destito, Gurer Budak, Ekmel Ozbay, Marianne Manchester, Cengiz S. Ozkan and Mihrimah Ozkan

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702863

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      A novel nanoparticle hybrid is attained by the covalent attachment of iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoclusters onto the surface of a mutagenized cow pea mosaic virus (CPMV-T184C). Using a stepwise substrate-based integration, monodisperse CPMV-IO hybrids are anchored on a gold substrate. The physical and magnetic properties of individual CPMV-IO hybrids are qualitatively investigated by atomic/magnetic force microscopy (AFM/ MFM). During MFM characterization a ‘boundary-effect’ is observed at the CPMV/IO interface.

    28. Helical Twisting of Electrospun Liquid Crystalline Cellulose Micro- and Nanofibers (pages 4821–4825)

      João P. Canejo, João P. Borges, M. Helena Godinho, Pedro Brogueira, Paulo I. C. Teixeira and Eugene M. Terentjev

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801008

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      Helically twisted fibers can be produced by electrospinning liquid-crystalline cellulose solutions. Fiber topographies are studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (see figure) and polarized optical microscopy. The fibers have a nearly universal pitch-to-diameter ratio and comprise both right- and left-handed helices.

    29. Up- and Down-Conversion Cubic Zirconia and Hafnia Nanobelts (pages 4826–4829)

      Changlong Jiang, Feng Wang, Nianqiang Wu and Xiaogang Liu

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801459

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-crystalline, cubic ZrO2- and HfO2 nanobelts have been fabricated via a direct thermal-decomposition process under atmospheric pressure. The formation of cubic nanobelts can be controlled by varying the dopant concentration of nanobelt precursors, heating temperatures, and heating rates. The lanthanide-doped nanobelts show a dual capability for both down- and up-conversion emissions (see picture) in the visible range.

    30. Supercritical Continuous-Microflow Synthesis of Narrow Size Distribution Quantum Dots (pages 4830–4834)

      Samuel Marre, Jongnam Park, Jane Rempel, Juan Guan, Moungi G. Bawendi and Klavs F. Jensen

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801579

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      CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with narrow size distribution are synthesized continuously in a pressurized high-temperature microreactor using supercritical hexane as the main solvent. The as-prepared QDs exhibit narrow photoluminescence emission (full-width at half-maximum as small as 25 nm, corresponding to σ = 4%), showing the advantages of supercritical-fluid synthesis compared to conventional high-boiling-point solvents.

    31. Single-Crystal Microribbons of an Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole Derivative by Solution-Phase Self-Assembly with Novel Mechanical, Electrical, and Optical Properties (pages 4835–4839)

      Yunlong Guo, Huaping Zhao, Gui Yu, Chong-an Di, Wei Liu, Shidong Jiang, Shouke Yan, Chunru Wang, Hongliang Zhang, Xiangnan Sun, Xutang Tao and Yunqi Liu

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801903

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      2,8-Di(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-5,11-di-n-octylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (2TFMPOIND) has been synthesised by a Suzuki coupling reaction. Single crystal microribbons of 2TFMPOIND are then fabricated by a solution assembly process. The microribbons have novel mechanical, optical, and electrical properties.

    32. Photoluminescent Nanoparticle Surfaces: The Potential of Alkaline Earth Oxides for Optical Applications (pages 4840–4844)

      Andreas Sternig, Slavica Stankic, Markus Müller, Johannes Bernardi, Erich Knözinger and Oliver Diwald

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800560

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      The surfaces of alkaline earth oxides emit bright, colored light and have potential as thermally stable inorganic phosphors with adsorption-dependent optical properties. The doping of thermally stable MgO nanocubes with low-coordinated BaO surface elements (see figure) clearly demonstrates that chemical manipulation of the solid–gas interface provides an efficient means to adjust the optical properties of powders in controlled gas atmospheres.

    33. Continuous Size Tuning of Monodisperse ZnO Colloidal Nanocrystal Clusters by a Microwave-Polyol Process and Their Application for Humidity Sensing (pages 4845–4850)

      Xianluo Hu, Jingming Gong, Lizhi Zhang and Jimmy C. Yu

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801433

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      Monodisperse ZnO colloidal nanocrystal clusters (CNCs) are synthesized through a rapid microwave-polyol process. The size of the clusters is tunable from 57 to 274 nm by varying the amount of Zn-complex precursors. The combination of unique secondary nanostructures, inter-nanocrystallites, and large internal surfaces make these ZnO CNCs ideal candidates for applications such as humidity sensing.

    34. Controlling Orientation and Order in Block Copolymer Thin Films (pages 4851–4856)

      Seung Hyun Kim, Matthew J. Misner and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701206

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      The orientation of microdomains in block copolymer thin films is controlled by two simple strategies that have been developed through controlling interfacial interactions by anchoring end-functionalized polymers to the substrate. Combined with solvent annealing, these methods provide a simple route for manipulating the orientation and lateral order of the copolymer microdomains.

    35. Synergistic Effects in Bimetallic Nanoparticles for Low Temperature Carbon Nanotube Growth (pages 4857–4861)

      Wei-Hung Chiang and R. Mohan Sankaran

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801006

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      Dimensionally and compositionally tuned bimetallic nanoparticles are synthesized in an atmospheric pressure microplasma reactor and found to catalyze carbon nanotube (CNT) growth at lower temperatures and higher growth rates than monometallic nanoparticles. Kinetic studies show that the activation energy for CNT growth is lowered substantially with nanoparticle alloys, demonstrating that intrinsic catalytic activity is intimately related to chemical composition.

    36. Nanoscopic Ordered Voids and Metal Caps by Controlled Trapping of Colloidal Particles at Polymeric Film Surfaces (pages 4862–4867)

      Se Gyu Jang, Dae-Geun Choi, Chul-Joon Heo, Su Yeon Lee and Seung-Man Yang

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702851

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      Well-defined nanovoid and metal- nanocap arrays are fabricated on flexible polymer substrates with controlled sizes and morphologies, via trapping of inorganic particles at a polymer-film surface. The proposed method provides a platform to create an effective SERS substrate, for use in devices such as chemical and biomolecular sensors.

    37. High-Performance Semiconductors based on Alkoxylnaphthyl End-Capped Oligomers for Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 4868–4872)

      Qinghua Zhao, Tae Hoon Kim, Jong Won Park, Seul Ong Kim, Sung Ouk Jung, Jin Woo Kim, Taek Ahn, Yun-Hi Kim, Mi Hye Yi and Soon-Ki Kwon

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800061

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      Small-fused acenes with an electron-donating alkoxyl naphthyl end-capper, which can tune the electronic properties and increase stacking by self-assembly, are synthesized by a simple process and fabricated into organic thin film transistors. In particular, hexyloxynaphthalene-end-capped anthracene, AN-ANE (see figure), shows field effect mobility three times that of pentacene under optimized conditions.

    38. Patterning Colloidal Metal Nanoparticles for Controlled Growth of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 4873–4878)

      Bing Li, Chin Foo Goh, Xiaozhu Zhou, Gang Lu, Hosea Tantang, Yanhong Chen, Can Xue, Freddy Y. C. Boey and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200802306

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWCNT) arrays are generated on catalyst patterns with controlled location, orientation, and spacing using a straightforward approach. Dip-pen nanolithography is used to fabricate catalyst patterns with sub-70 nm resolution, and SWCNTs are successfully grown on these patterns through chemical vapor deposition. The growth direction of the SWCNTs on quartz is controlled, and along the [100] crystallographic direction.

    39. Ion-Transfer-Based Growth: A Mechanism for CuTCNQ Nanowire Formation (pages 4879–4882)

      Heng-Xing Ji, Jin-Song Hu, Yu-Guo Guo, Wei-Guo Song and Li-Jun Wan

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702766

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new ion-transfer-based mechanism is proposed for the growth of CuTCNQ nanowires within the confines of an anodic aluminum oxide template. Remarkably, Cu ions are found to move across the growing solid single-crystalline nanowire at a very high rate with macroscopic distance, as schematically illustrated in the figure.

    40. Stabilized Nanoporous Metals by Dealloying Ternary Alloy Precursors (pages 4883–4886)

      Josh Snyder, Piyapong Asanithi, Alan B. Dalton and Jonah Erlebacher

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702760

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A small percentage of platinum added to silver/gold alloys that are then electrochemically dealloyed yields an extremely high surface area nanoporous metal, with pore size less than 4 nm, as shown in the figure (scale bar = 5 nm). The presence of surface platinum stabilizes the nanostructure to coarsening in air and electrolyte.

  7. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Stretchable Electronics: Materials Strategies and Devices (pages 4887–4892)

      Dae-Hyeong Kim and John A. Rogers

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200801788

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electronics that offer fully elastic mechanical responses to large strain deformations are briefly reviewed here. We discuss progress in this emerging field of research, with an emphasis on approaches that use semiconductor nanomaterials in unusual structural layouts. Recent results demonstrate that high performance stretchable electronic/optoelectronic devices can be formed in this manner, with well-established classes of materials whose intrinsically fragile, brittle nature would otherwise preclude their use.

  8. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      Organic Solar Cells Using Nanoimprinted Transparent Metal Electrode

      Myung-Gyu Kang, Myung-Su Kim, Jinsang Kim and L. Jay Guo

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890105

      This article corrects:

      Organic Solar Cells Using Nanoimprinted Transparent Metal Electrodes1

      Vol. 20, Issue 23, 4408–4413, Article first published online: 5 SEP 2008

    2. You have free access to this content
      Energy Harvesting Using Nanowires?

      Marin Alexe, Stephan Senz, Markus Andreas Schubert, Dietrich Hesse and Ulrich Gö sele

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890106

      This article corrects:

      Energy Harvesting Using Nanowires?1

      Vol. 20, Issue 21, 4021–4026, Article first published online: 1 SEP 2008

    3. You have free access to this content
      Core/Shell Nanoparticles as Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Reaction

      Jin Luo, Lingyan Wang, Derrick Mott, Peter N. Njoki, Yan Lin, Ting He, Zhichuan Xu, Bridgid N. Wanjana, I.-Im S. Lim and Chuan-Jian Zhong

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890107

      This article corrects:

      Core/Shell Nanoparticles as Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Reactions1

      Vol. 20, Issue 22, 4342–4347, Article first published online: 26 MAY 2008

    4. You have free access to this content
      Synthesis of Nonagglomerated Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle Dispersions

      Charles J. Capozzi, Cantwell G. Carson, Rosario A. Gerhardt, Christopher J. Summers and Richard A. Gilstrap Jr.

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890108

      This article corrects:

      Synthesis of a Nonagglomerated Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle Dispersion1

      Vol. 20, Issue 21, 4163–4166, Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008

  9. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Essay
    6. Review Article
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Corrections
    10. Index
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Mater. 24/2008 (pages 4893–4896)

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890104

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