Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 3

February, 2008

Volume 20, Issue 3

Pages 375–634

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Direct Growth of Flexible Carbon Nanotube Electrodes (Adv. Mater. 3/2008)

      J. Chen, A. I. Minett, Y. Liu, C. Lynam, P. Sherrell, C. Wang and G. G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multiwalled CNT entangled networks integrated into a highly conducting carbon layer can be grown on a range of substrates including glassy carbon and metal foils. A continuous flexible CNT electrode with high surface area and conductivity is produced, with a stable battery capacity of 572 mAh g–1. This discovery provides a direct route for the generation of large-scale flexible CNT electrode materials.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. Inside Front Cover: Enzyme-Based Multi-Component Optical Nanoprobes for Sequence-Specific Detection of DNA Hybridization (Adv. Mater. 3/2008)

      J. Li, S. Song, X. Liu, L. Wang, D. Pan, Q. Huang, Y. Zhao and C. Fan

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890008

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Seeing is believing. A novel multi- component gold nanoparticle-based nanoprobe is assembled with a thiolated DNA detection probe, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA). In this nanoprobe, the DNA detection probe is used to construct complexes for “sandwich”-based DNA detection, HRP translates this hybridization event into an enzymatic catalysis-based optical signal, while and BSA acts as a non-specific blocker.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 3/2008 (pages 375–389)

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890004

  4. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. You have free access to this content
      High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Germanium from Oxidative Polymerization of the Deltahedral [Ge9]4– Cluster: Electronic Structure Modulation with Donor and Acceptor Molecules (page 389)

      G. S. Armatas and M. G. Kanatzidis

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890005

      A high-surface-area mesoporous germanium is prepared by a new straightforward method that involves oxidative polymerization and no linking agents or external oxidants. The electronic structure of this Ge semiconductor exhibits reversible change towards absorption of various donor and acceptor organic molecules.

  5. Progress Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. Progress in Nanoengineered Microstructures for Tunable High-Current, High-Temperature Superconducting Wires (pages 391–407)

      T. G. Holesinger, L. Civale, B. Maiorov, D. M. Feldmann, J. Y. Coulter, D. J. Miller, V. A. Maroni, Z. Chen, D. C. Larbalestier, R. Feenstra, X. Li, Y. Huang, T. Kodenkandath, W. Zhang, M. W. Rupich and A. P. Malozemoff

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700919

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High critical current Y1Ba2Cu3O7–δsuperconducting films must contain engineered inhomogeneities on the nanoscale within the framework of a uniform, defect-free macro-structure. Tailoring of the superconducting properties to application-specific conditions requires the ability to precisely engineer and control the nanoscale defect structure. This progress report covers the use of chemical solution deposition in achieving this level of control in high-performance YBCO superconducting films.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. Molecular Level Control over Hierarchical Structure Formation and Polymerization of Oligopeptide-Polymer Conjugates (pages 409–414)

      E. Jahnke, N. Severin, P. Kreutzkamp, J. P. Rabe and H. Frauenrath

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diacetylene macromonomers based on oligopeptide-polymer conjugates reliably organized into uniform supramolecular polymers with defined hierarchical structure, strictly controlled by the number and pattern of hydrogen bonding sites. Some of the aggregates were converted into conjugated polymers under retention of their hierarchical structure, yielding soluble poly(diacetylene)s with single-stranded, double- helical, or quadruple-helical quaternary structures.

    2. A Semi-transparent Plastic Solar Cell Fabricated by a Lamination Process (pages 415–419)

      J. Huang, G. Li and Y. Yang

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701101

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An electronic glue-based lamination process combined with interface modification is presented as a one-step process for semitransparent polymer solar cell fabrication. The device is metal-free, semitransparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and highly efficient, with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 70 % and a power efficiency of 3 % under AM 1.5 global 1 sun solar illumination conditions. This approach represents a critical step towards the ultimate goal of low-cost polymer solar cells.

    3. Carbon Nanofibers “Spot-Welded” to Carbon Felt: A Mechanically Stable, Bulk Mimic of Lotus Leaves (pages 420–424)

      J. Li, S. Sambandam, W. Lu and C. M. Lukehart

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700444

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Graphitic carbon nanofibers are catalytically grown on commercial carbon felt microfibers, and carbothermal treatment then produces interfacial silicon carbide phase rendering the supported nanofibers mechanically robust and chemically stable. This pliable 3-dimensional porous nanocomposite material reveals a hierarchical structure mimicking lotus leaves and depicts superhydrophobicity and reversible wettability.

    4. A 2D-Rectangular p2gg Silica Mesoporous Crystal with Elliptical Mesopores: An Intermediate Phase of Chiral and Lamellar Mesostructures (pages 425–429)

      H. Qiu, Y. Sakamoto, O. Terasaki and S. Che

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700809

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By adjusting the basicity of the reaction mixture in the cationic surfactant templating route, a systematic change from 2D-hexagonal chiral to 2D-rectangular p2gg to a lamellar silica mesostructure is precisely controlled. Detailed characterization shows that the novel 2D-rectangular p2gg silica mesoporous crystal exhibits elliptical mesopores peculiarly stacked with varying anisotropy on a 2D-hexagonal lattice, as shown in the figure.

    5. Synthesis of Functionalized Au Nanoparticles for Protein Detection (pages 430–434)

      N. R. Jana and J. Y. Ying

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701348

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Aptamer and antibody functionalized Au nanoparticles are synthesized and used for protein detection (see figure). These particles are highly water soluble and as small as 10 nm. However, they are enlarged after a protein binding event to enhance signal sensitivity. A conventional western blot protocol is used to enable detection of the proteins with nanomolar sensitivity, with the naked eye.

    6. Anisotropy in Organic Single-Crystal Photovoltaic Characteristics (pages 435–438)

      R. J. Tseng, R. Chan, V. C. Tung and Y. Yang

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701374

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-terminal electronic devices, such as diodes and solar cells, based on a heterojunction structure incorporating a tetracene single crystal and a C60 thin film are fabricated (see figure). The photovoltaic devices demonstrate an external power conversion efficiency of ca. 0.34 % and a high open-circuit voltage of 0.57 V.

    7. Porous Films from Transformation of Polymeric Sphere Arrays (pages 439–442)

      M. J. Xue, W. T. Xiao and Z. J. Zhang

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702015

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The formation of porous polymer films via a simple in situ sphere–concave inversion of 2D polymer sphere arrays (see figure) is described. The straightforward technique presented here can be used for a variety of polymers by using appropriate monomers. The formed porous structures have the potential to function as matrices for the formation of microlenses and microanalytical tools.

    8. Nanocarbon Superhydrophobic Surfaces created from Fullerene-Based Hierarchical Supramolecular Assemblies (pages 443–446)

      T. Nakanishi, T. Michinobu, K. Yoshida, N. Shirahata, K. Ariga, H. Möhwald and D. G. Kurth

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701537

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanocarbon superhydrophobic surfaces (NCSSs) with a fractal morphology of the two-tier roughness on a nano- and microscopic scale are created from hierarchical, supramolecular objects, which are readily prepared by molecular assembly of a fullerene derivative bearing long aliphatic chains. The high durability of the fabricated fractal structures is derived from enhanced π–π and van der Waals interactions of fullerene and aliphatic chain moieties, respectively.

    9. Laterally Spaced Linear Nanoparticle Arrays Templated by Laminated β-Sheet Fibrils (pages 447–451)

      M. S. Lamm, N. Sharma, K. Rajagopal, F. L. Beyer, J. P. Schneider and D. J. Pochan

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701413

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Parallel, linear gold nanoparticle arrays with a periodic lateral spacing have been created via templated assembly. The template is a de novo designed peptide that self-assembles into β-sheet fibrils exhibiting a laminated morphology. Regular arrangement of positively charged lysine residues across the width of the fibril and complementary electrostatic interactions with negatively charged gold nanoparticles directs the particles into linear arrays (see figure).

    10. Controlled Preparation of MnO2 Hierarchical Hollow Nanostructures and Their Application in Water Treatment (pages 452–456)

      J. B. Fei, Y. Cui, X. H. Yan, W. Qi, Y. Yang, K. W. Wang, Q. He and J. B. Li

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701231

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hierarchical hollow manganese dioxide nanosheets with intricate and well-controlled 3D morphologies are synthesized by combining the Kirkendall effect with a sacrificial crystalline template. The as-prepared MnO2 nanomaterials (see figure) exhibit a good absorbing ability, useful in the removal of organic pollutants from waste water.

    11. Carbon Nanotube Network Structuring Using Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystal Templates (pages 457–461)

      M. H. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, H. K. Choi, S.-M. Yoon, O. O. Park, D. K. Yi, S. J. Choi and H.-J. Shin

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700956

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-dimensional colloidal lithography is successfully applied to the fabrication of novel transparent carbon nanotube networks with controllable film resistance. The method adopted in this study produces ordered network structure with regular voids in the carbon nanotube network film, and results in transparency increases compared with random network structured films, without loss of conductivity.

    12. Helical Crystals with a Sixfold Screw Axis (pages 462–465)

      X. Wang, Y. Lu, Y. Duan, L. Meng and C. Li

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701296

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Double-stranded helical crystals with high axial ratio are prepared from a cholic acid ester. Two processes are involved in the formation of the micrometer-scale self-assembled crystals: 1) the self-assembly of the cholic acid ester to form a hydrogel (the formation of gel fibers); 2) the winding of the gel fibers (laser confocal scanning micrographs show, top: left-handed; bottom: right-handed).

    13. DNA-Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Fibers for supercapacitors and Artificial Muscles (pages 466–470)

      S. R. Shin, C. K. Lee, I. S. So, J. H. Jeon, T. M. Kang, C. W. Kee, S. I. Kim, G. M. Spinks, G. G. Wallace and S. J. Kim

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701102

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      DNA–single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid fibers are fabricated. Partial debundling and alignment of the nanotubes reduces junction resistances leading to high conductivities. The DNA is effective, as a mechanical binder and for debundling the SWNTs, even when immersed in liquid electrolytes. Therefore, the DNA–SWNT Fibers show excellent supercapacitor behavior and superior actuation performance.

    14. Molecular Self-Assembly, Chemical Lithography, and Biochemical Tweezers: A Path for the Fabrication of Functional Nanometer-Scale Protein Arrays (pages 471–477)

      A. Turchanin, A. Tinazli, M. El-Desawy, H. Großmann, M. Schnietz, H. H. Solak, R. Tampé and A. Gölzhäuser

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702189

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electron-induced chemical lithography combined with self-assembled monolayers and multivalent chelators for high-affinity capturing of His-tagged proteins are used to obtain specific, stable, highly parallel, and functional protein micro- and nanoarrays on solid substrates. The functionality of the generated large-area protein arrays is shown in situ via specific, homogeneous, oriented and reversible immobilization of His6-tagged 20S proteasome and fluorescence labelled His10-tagged maltose binding proteins.

    15. Designed Fabrication of a Multifunctional Polymer Nanomedical Platform for Simultaneous Cancer- Targeted Imaging and Magnetically Guided Drug Delivery (pages 478–483)

      J. Kim, J. E. Lee, S. H. Lee, J. H. Yu, J. H. Lee, T. G. Park and T. Hyeon

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701726

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multifunctional polymer nanomedical platforms make simultaneous cancer-targeted MRI or optical imaging together with efficient drug delivery in vitro possible. In addition, clusters of Fe3O4 nanoparticles loaded in the polymer nanoparticles endow the magnetic guiding of the polymer particles, providing synergetic targeting efficiency.

    16. Tunable Arrays of C60 Molecular Chains (pages 484–488)

      L. Chen, W. Chen, H. Huang, H. L. Zhang, J. Yuhara and A. T. S. Wee

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701384

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tunable arrays of C60linear chains on the α-sexithiophene (6T) bilayer or monolayer surface nanotemplates are formed by careful control of the delicate balance between the intermolecular and the interfacial interactions using different experimental conditions, that is, various C60 and 6T surface coverages and post-annealing temperatures. The figure shows scanning tunneling microscopy images of the arrays.

    17. Nanoscale Patterning and Electronics on Flexible Substrate by Direct Nanoimprinting of Metallic Nanoparticles (pages 489–496)

      I. Park, S. H. Ko, H. Pan, C. P. Grigoropoulos, A. P. Pisano, J. M. J. Fréchet, E.-S. Lee and J.-H. Jeong

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702326

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoscale patterning and electronics fabrication on flexible polymer substrates via direct nanoimprinting of metal nanoparticles was demonstrated. The metal nanoparticle solution enables a simple one-step metal nanoimprinting with very low pressure and temperature. Electrical and structural characterizations on flexible substrate during cyclic bending deformations verify the robustness of the nanoimprinted structures to mechanical deformation conditions.

    18. Enzyme-Based Multi-Component Optical Nanoprobes for Sequence- Specific Detection of DNA Hybridization (pages 497–500)

      J. Li, S. Song, X. Liu, L. Wang, D. Pan, Q. Huang, Y. Zhao and C. Fan

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701918

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Seeing is believing. A novel multi- component gold nanoparticle-based nanoprobe is assembled with a thiolated DNA detection probe, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA). In this nanoprobe, the DNA detection probe is used to construct complexes for “sandwich”-based DNA detection, HRP translates this hybridization event into an enzymatic catalysis-based optical signal, while and BSA acts as a non-specific blocker.

    19. Enhanced Potential of Amorphous Electrode Materials: Case Study of RuO2 (pages 501–505)

      O. Delmer, P. Balaya, L. Kienle and J. Maier

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701349

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Amorphous nanosized RuO2obtained electrochemically as well as by a solution route exhibits a higher potential (580 mV) compared with the bulk crystal value. The results here show that a cell voltage that involves amorphous constituents can be i) reliably studied, ii) quantitatively understood in terms of a loss of long-range order, and iii) be used to achieve a higher potential in Li batteries, in this case more than half a volt.

    20. Nanorods as Wavelength-Selective Absorption Centers in the Visible and Near-Infrared Regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (pages 506–510)

      A. G. Skirtach, P. Karageorgiev, B. G. De Geest, N. Pazos-Perez, D. Braun and G. B. Sukhorukov

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701542

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanorods embedded in polymeric capsules are used as wavelength-selective absorption centers to trigger the opening of the capsules and release of their contents upon laser illumination. The figure illustrates that by tuning the position of the surface plasmon peak of the nanorods, the microcapsules can be made sensitive to different wavelengths of light.

    21. Enhanced Optical Limiting Effects in Porphyrin-Covalently Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 511–515)

      Z.-B. Liu, J.-G. Tian, Z. Guo, D.-M. Ren, F. Du, J.-Y. Zheng and Y.-S. Chen

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702547

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrins present enhanced optical limiting effects. Both porphyrins and SWNTs are good candidates for optical limiting applications. The porphyrin-covalently functionalized SWNTs offer superior performance to C60, the individual SWNTs, and porphyrins because of a combined nonlinear mechanism and photoinduced electron or energy transfer between the porphyrin moiety and the SWNTs.

    22. Photo-Triggered Surface Relief Grating Formation in Supramolecular Liquid Crystalline Polymer Systems with Detachable Azobenzene Unit (pages 516–521)

      N. Zettsu, T. Ogasawara, N. Mizoshita, S. Nagano and T. Seki

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701110

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The efficient photo-triggered surface relief formation in the H-boned supramolecular liquid crystalline system was performed for the first time. This supramolecular framework leads to facile and successful detachment of azobenzene unit from the SRG inscribed film with exact retention of the morphological periodicity.

    23. Hierarchical Ordering of Block Copolymer Nanostructures by Solvent Annealing Combined with Controlled Dewetting (pages 522–527)

      T. H. Kim, J. Hwang, W. S. Hwang, J. Huh, H.-C. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. M. Hong, E. L. Thomas and C. Park

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700651

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A hierarchical nanostructure of PS-b-PEO is demonstrated (see figure) with a novel approach by solvent vapor annealing of a micropatterned block copolymer thin film selectively spun cast on microcontact printed surface of SAMs. Dewetting of the thin film, inevitable during the ordering of block copolymer microdomains upon solvent annealing, is strictly confined to the patterned regions, leading to the controlled micropatttern with nearly perfect ordering of PEO microdomains.

    24. Imaging the Interfaces of Conjugated Polymer Optoelectronic Devices (pages 528–534)

      D. W. Steuerman, A. Garcia, M. Dante, R. Yang, J. P. Löfvander and T.-Q. Nguyen

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700887

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A focused ion beam is used to extract cross-sectional samples from multilayer conjugated polymer films and optoelectronic devices. Subsequent TEM, AFM and SIMS studies yield insight into polymer-polymer and polymer-electrode interfaces and how these interfaces can be controlled by processing conditions, such as choice of solvent and thermal annealing.

    25. Controlled Loading of Nanoparticles into Submicrometer Holes (pages 535–538)

      N. A. Mirin, M. Hainey Jr. and N. J. Halas

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701442

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Controlled nanoparticle loading into submicron holes is driven by electrostatic interparticle and particle-hole interactions. The average number of trapped nanoparticles increases with the ionic strength of the suspending medium (left). The relative particle-hole sizes determine the average number of trapped metal nanoparticles (right).

    26. Bifunctional Heterogeneous Catalysts for Selective Epoxidation and Visible Light Driven Photolysis: Nickel Oxide-Containing Porous Nanocomposite (pages 539–542)

      T. W. Kim, S.-J. Hwang, S. H. Jhung, J.-S. Chang, H. Park, W. Choi and J. H. Choy

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701677

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts with pore structure have been synthesized by the coupling between nickel oxide and titanium oxide. The resulting porous nanocomposites show promising bifunctional catalytic activity against the selective epoxidation of olefin molecules as well as visible light driven photolysis.

    27. Organic Electro-optic Single- Crystalline Thin Films Grown Directly on Modified Amorphous Substrates (pages 543–545)

      O-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek and P. Günter

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701698

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High quality organic electro-optic single crystalline thin films are produced on amorphous C≡N-modified glass substrates (see figure), which is a mimic surface of a crystal, by slow evaporation and capillary methods. The films have a suitable size (shaped as rectangular plates with side lengths in the range of 5–10 mm and regular thicknesses in the range of 1–40 μm) for the fabrication of photonic devices.

    28. High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Germanium from Oxidative Polymerization of the Deltahedral [Ge9]4– Cluster: Electronic Structure Modulation with Donor and Acceptor Molecules (pages 546–550)

      G. S. Armatas and M. G. Kanatzidis

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701751

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-surface-area mesoporous germanium is prepared by a new straightforward method that involves oxidative polymerization and no linking agents or external oxidants. The electronic structure of this Ge semiconductor exhibits reversible change towards absorption of various donor and acceptor organic molecules.

    29. Colossal Permittivity in Ultrafine Grain Size BaTiO3–x and Ba0.95La0.05TiO3–x Materials (pages 551–555)

      S. Guillemet-Fritsch, Z. Valdez-Nava, C. Tenailleau, T. Lebey, B. Durand and J.-Y. Chane-Ching

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700245

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Colossal permittivity up to 106at 1 KHz (0.1 < tan δ < 0.7) was achieved on 70 nm Ba0.95La0.05TiO3–x materials. The colossal permittivit value is observed in nanomaterials displaying high concentration of charge carriers and low activation energy interfaces.

    30. Unprecedented Room-Temperature Electrical Power Generation Using Nanoscale Fluorite-Structured Oxide Electrolytes (pages 556–559)

      S. Kim, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, H. J. Park, M. Martin and Z. A. Munir

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700715

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This research demonstrates protonic conductivity in nanoscale fluorite- structured oxides as well as YSZ at low temperatures. The photograph shows a water concentration cell of a dense nanostructured (grain size ∼ 20 nm) Sm-doped ceria ceramic operating at room temperature. One side (cathode) of the cell is exposed to wet-air while the other side (anode) is immersed into de-ionized water. The current measured from the cell is ∼ 30 nA.

    31. Polyelectrolyte Coatings with a Potential for Electronic Control and Cell Sheet Engineering (pages 560–565)

      O. Guillaume-Gentil, Y. Akiyama, M. Schuler, C. Tang, M. Textor, M. Yamato, T. Okano and J. Vörös

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700758

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel method for non-invasive cell sheet recovery based on polyelectrolyte thin films is presented. Coatings with highly tunable properties allow for controlling the cell surface interactions or can be used as electronically switchable sacrificial layer offering a promising new tool for cell sheet based tissue engineering.

    32. Direct Growth of Flexible Carbon Nanotube Electrodes (pages 566–570)

      J. Chen, A. I. Minett, Y. Liu, C. Lynam, P. Sherrell, C. Wang and G. G. Wallace

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701146

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multiwalled CNT entangled networks integrated into a highly conducting carbon layer can be grown on a range of substrates including glassy carbon and metal foils. A continuous flexible CNT electrode with high surface area and conductivity is produced, with a stable battery capacity of 572 mAh g–1. This discovery provides a direct route for the generation of large-scale flexible CNT electrode materials.

    33. Template- and Surfactant-free Room Temperature Synthesis of Self-Assembled 3D Pt Nanoflowers from Single-Crystal Nanowires (pages 571–574)

      S. H. Sun, D. Q. Yang, D. Villers, G. X. Zhang, E. Sacher and J. P. Dodelet

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701408

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      3D Pt nanoflowers, which are composed of numerous single-crystal nanowires, are successfully synthesized by a facile chemical procedure, at room temperature, without surfactant or template. The Pt nanoflowers adhere to carbon paper, exhibiting an enlarged electroactive surface area comparable to that of a commercial Pt/C electrode.

    34. Can Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Improve the Mechanical Integrity of Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene? (pages 575–578)

      A. Naylor, P. S. Timashev, A. B. Solov'eva, N. A. Erina, S. Kotova, A. J. Busby, V. K. Popov and S. M. Howdle

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701491

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene/polymethacrylate semi- interpenetrating network is prepared using supercritical CO2. The mechanical properties of the UHMWPE material are vastly superior to the unmodified material and are related to the microstructure of these novel materials.

    35. Design Rules for Donors in Bulk-Heterojunction Tandem Solar Cells�Towards 15 % Energy-Conversion Efficiency (pages 579–583)

      G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, T. Ameri, P. Denk, K. Forberich, C. Waldauf and C. J. Brabec

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702337

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The study we present here aims at evaluating the efficiency of tandem organic solar cells expectable by stacking two materials, comparing this efficiency to the one that could be achieved by single cells based on these materials, and identifying the characteristics of the materials to be stacked to achieve efficiency higher than the single cells. In other words, we intend to clarify the potential of organic tandem solar cells and the expectations that one might have by realizing some.

    36. Periodic Distribution of Planar Defects in Colloidal Photonic Crystals (pages 584–587)

      P. Massé, G. Pouclet and S. Ravaine

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700628

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Colloidal photonic crystals containing one to four periodically embedded planar defect layers are fabricated (see figure). It appears that the fabrication of such periodic superlattices leads to a redistribution of the photonic density of states, resulting in the opening of new bands and gaps in the photonic band structure, in comparison with defect-free opals.

    37. Growth of Gold Tips onto Hyperbranched CdTe Nanostructures (pages 588–591)

      Y. Khalavka and C. Sönnichsen

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701518

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Uniformly sized gold nanoparticles are selectively deposited onto the tips of hyperbranched CdTe nanostructures, as illustrated in the figure. The reaction mechanism is thought to involve the reduction of gold by the CdTe nanostructures. These novel hybrid semiconductor–metal nanostructures may be useful for energy conversion, optoelectronics, and biofunctional platforms.

    38. Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (pages 592–595)

      X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang and D. C. Zou

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701249

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A wire-shaped flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (WSF-DSSC) without any transparent conducting oxide materials is fabricated. The cell has a helical twisting structure formed by two fiber-like electrodes (100 μm in diameter). Due to the twisting structure, many opaque conducting materials such as metal wire can be applied. It is found that the incident-light-angle dependence of the cell's IV output is extremely low.

    39. Well-Positioned Metallic Nanostructures Fabricated by Nanotransfer Edge Printing (pages 596–600)

      M. Q. Xue, Y. L. Yang and T. B. Cao

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701725

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We describe a simple and experimentally convenient method to print and position metallic nanostructures on silicon wafer using nanotransfer edge printing (nTEP), which is a combination of thin-film metal deposition, nanotransfer printing (nTP), and edge lithography. The shape, width, and aspect ratio of the metal nanostructures can be precisely tuned during the fabrication process.

    40. Motor Protein CF0F1 Reconstituted in Lipid-Coated Hemoglobin Microcapsules for ATP Synthesis (pages 601–605)

      W. Qi, L. Duan, K. W. Wang, X. H. Yan, Y. Cui, Q. He and J. Li

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702155

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      ATPase, the smallest molecular motor in nature, is assembled within lipid-modified protein microcapsules. ATP is generated by driving the ATPase using a proton gradient provided by the oxidation and hydrolysis of glucose, as schematically illustrated in the figure. The demonstration of ATPase catalysis in microcapsules has implications for the design of functional “smart” materials and drug delivery vehicles.

    41. Thermally Stable Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Photoresists for Fabrication of Photonic Band Gap Structures with Direct Laser Writing (pages 606–610)

      Y. Jun, P. Nagpal and D. J. Norris

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702021

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A recently developed methylsilsesquioxane-based photoresist is combined with direct laser writing to define 3D microstructures (see image). Because the resulting structures exhibit thermal stability above 500 °C without cracking or significant distortions, they should allow photonic crystals and other microstructures to be obtained from a large variety of materials. This is demonstrated by infiltrating a “woodpile” photonic crystal with silicon using chemical vapor deposition.

    42. Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a Low Pinch-Off Voltage and a Controllable Threshold Voltage (pages 611–615)

      Y. Wang, Y. Q. Liu, Y. B. Song, S. H. Ye, W. P. Wu, Y. L. Guo, C. A. Di, Y. M. Sun, G. Yu and W. P. Hu

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701476

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic field-effect transistors with a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) buffer layer between the SiO2 and organic semiconductor are fabricated. The PVK layer improves the device performance (mobility of 0.5 cm2 V–1 s–1). The charge stored in the PVK layer can be changed by the starting VGS (see figure, where VGS varies from 0 to –100 V), resulting in the systematic control of the threshold voltage in a device.

    43. Sonochemical Optimization of the Conductivity of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Networks (pages 616–620)

      M. Kaempgen, M. Lebert, M. Haluska, N. Nicoloso and S. Roth

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702873

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Networks of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are covalently functionalized with oxygen-containing groups. In lower concentration, these functional groups act as stable dopands improving the conductivity of the SWCNT material. In higher concentration however, their role as defects with a certain scattering potential becomes dominant, decreasing the conductivity of the CNT material. These effects lead to a trade-off in the number of functional groups which has been investigated using time-dependent sonochemistry.

    44. Fault-Tolerant Dielectric Elastomer Actuators using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Electrodes (pages 621–625)

      W. Yuan, L. B. Hu, Z. B. Yu, T. Lam, J. Biggs, S. M. Ha, D. J. Xi, B. Chen, M. K. Senesky, G. Grüner and Q. Pei

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fault-tolerant actuators. Single-walled carbon nanotubes were studied as new compliant electrodes for dielectric elastomers. The spray-coated SWNT electrodes drive electromechanical strains greater than 200 %. When a fault is present due to pin puncture or internal defect in the elastomer films, dielectric breakdown causes localized self-clearing of the SWNT electrodes and isolation of the fault. The increased fault tolerance may enhance the actuation reliability of dielectric elastomers actuators.

  7. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. Scope and Applications of Amphiphilic Alkyl- and Lipopeptides (pages 627–631)

      S. Cavalli and A. Kros

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701914

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Peptides with a tale. Nowadays oligopeptides can be easily synthesized and their secondary and tertiary structure is controlled by the amino acid sequence. Recent developments in the application of amphiphilic alkyl- and lipopeptides in the fields of bioactive compounds, ordered surfaces, and biomineralization are discussed.

  8. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Correction
    6. Progress Report
    7. Communications
    8. Research News
    9. Index
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Mater. 3/2008 (pages 632–634)

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890006

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION