Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 6

March 18, 2008

Volume 20, Issue 6

Pages 1083–1224

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    6. Index
    1. Cover Picture: Visualization of Stacking Faults and their Formation in Colloidal Photonic Crystal Films (Adv. Mater. 6/2008)

      E. Vekris, V. Kitaev, D. D. Perovic, J. S. Aitchison and G. A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A colloidal crystal with fundamental photonic stopband in the near-infrared and higher-frequency photonic bands in the visible was designed to yield impressive sensitivity to stacking fault formation, as reported by Geoff Ozin and co-workers on p. 1110. Diagnostic patterns of brilliant colors emerge, providing a powerful spectroscopic tool to elucidate the origin, nature, and control of stacking faults.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    6. Index
    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 6/2008 (pages 1083–1091)

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890019

  3. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    6. Index
    1. Indium Nanowires Synthesized at an Ultrafast Rate (pages 1093–1098)

      Seung Soo Oh, Do Hyun Kim, Myoung-Woon Moon, Ashkan Vaziri, Miyoung Kim, Euijoon Yoon, Kyu Hwan Oh and John W. Hutchinson

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702134

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      Indium nanowires are grown on InGaN substrates at an ultrafast rate by using direct irradiation by a focused ion beam (see figure). The diameter and length of the synthesized nanowires, as well as their growth rate, can be effectively controlled by selecting the energy of the ion beam. Nanowires are synthesized on selected areas of the substrate by controlling the regions exposed to the ion beam using maskless patterning.

    2. Synthesis of Thin and Highly Conductive DNA-Based Palladium Nanowires (pages 1099–1104)

      Khoa Nguyen, Miguel Monteverde, Arianna Filoramo, Laurence Goux-Capes, Sébastien Lyonnais, Pascale Jegou, Pascal Viel, Marcelo Goffman and Jean-Philippe Bourgoin

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701803

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      A novel approach is developed for the metallization of DNA scaffolds based on the initial slow precipitation of palladium oxide onto DNA strands, followed by reduction with an appropriate reducing agent. The slow precipitation approach enables thin and continuous coatings to be formed on the DNA strands, as illustrated in the figure, with negligible parasitic metallization of the remaining surface.

    3. Uniaxially Oriented, Highly Ordered, Large Area Columnar Superstructures of Discotic Supramolecules using Magnetic Field and Surface Interactions (pages 1105–1109)

      Hyo-Sik Kim, Sung-Min Choi, Ji-Hwan Lee, Peter Busch, Stephen J. Koza, Eric A. Verploegen and Brian D. Pate

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701783

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      Uniaxially oriented and highly ordered columnar superstructure of cobalt octa-(n-decylthio)porphyrazine (CoS10) on a large area of substrate has been fabricated, simultaneously utilizing an applied magnetic field and the interaction of CoS10 with an OTS-functionalized substrate. This very simple and straightforward alignment technique can be instrumental for practical applications of discotic supramolecular systems including various organoelectronic devices.

    4. Visualization of Stacking Faults and their Formation in Colloidal Photonic Crystal Films (pages 1110–1116)

      E. Vekris, V. Kitaev, D. D. Perovic, J. S. Aitchison and G. A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702431

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We demonstrate experimentally that stacking faults give rise to unique optical spectra in self-assembled colloidal crystal films. These defects are shown to affect only bands in the high frequency region, while leaving the fundamental 〈111〉 stopgap unaffected. Stacking faults are revealed to be caused by the incorporation of impurity spheres into the colloidal lattice during growth (pictured), a mechanism common to atomic crystallization.

    5. Highly Emissive Self-assembled Organic Nanoparticles having Dual Color Capacity for Targeted Immunofluorescence Labeling (pages 1117–1121)

      Hyong-Jun Kim, Jiseok Lee, Tae-Hoon Kim, Taek Seung Lee and Jinsang Kim

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701601

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      A new benzoxazole molecule has been synthesized and self-assembled with functionalized diacetylene molecules to obtain well-defined nanoparticles of 80 nm diameter. The nanoparticles show enhanced fluorescence emission of 38% quantum yield compared to 3% in THF solution. Selective targeting and dual color visualization of patterned avidin arrays were achieved by using these nanoparticles to demonstrate their promising application for immunofluorescence labeling.

    6. Homogenous Spherical Mosslike Assembly of Pd Nanoparticles by using DNA Compaction: Application of Pd–DNA Hybrid Materials to Volume-Expansion Hydrogen Switches (pages 1122–1128)

      Yoshiharu Hatakeyama, Mitsuo Umetsu, Satoshi Ohara, Fumihiko Kawadai, Seiitch Takami, Takashi Naka and Tadafumi Adschiri

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701312

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      The formation of Pd–DNA nanohybrid structures, and the use of these materials as chemiresistive hydrogen sensors is described. Interaction of Pd(II) complexes with λ-DNA leads to formation of a small compacted globular state, and reduction of the Pd(II) complexes results in homogenous spherical mosslike assembly of Pd nanoclusters. The mosslike Pd materials show a unique switch response to hydrogen adsorption.

    7. Nanoimprint Lithography Based Approach for the Fabrication of Large-Area, Uniformly-Oriented Plasmonic Arrays (pages 1129–1134)

      Brandon D. Lucas, Jin-Sung Kim, Christine Chin and L. Jay Guo

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200700225

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      Large-area, uniformly oriented plasmonic arrays are fabricated using nanoimprint lithography. Excellent control of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of the metallic arrays is demonstrated through nanoparticle material composition, size characteristics and polarization effects. This method offers a promising fabrication alternative to exploit LSPR-based applications such as biosensing and surface-enhanced spectroscopies.

    8. Single-Crystal Semiconductor Wires Integrated into Microstructured Optical Fibers (pages 1135–1140)

      Bryan R. Jackson, Pier J. A. Sazio and John V. Badding

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701569

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      Single-crystal silicon wires are grown within the pores of microstructured optical fibers via a high-pressure fluid-liquid-solid approach. Precise spatial organization of single crystal semiconductor wires offers a flexible alternative approach to the self-assembly or lithographic techniques often used for patterning wires for electronics and photonics. This will enable new composite materials that allow for cooperative photonic and electronic phenomena.

    9. Versatile Use of Vertical-Phase-Separation-Induced Bilayer Structures in Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 1141–1145)

      Longzhen Qiu, Jung Ah Lim, Xiaohong Wang, Wi Hyoung Lee, Minkyu Hwang and Kilwon Cho

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702505

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A semiconductor-top and dielectric-bottom bilayer structure is fabricated by surface-induced vertical phase separation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends (see figure). This structure allows to prepare high-performance, low-semiconductor-content, and low-voltage-driven TFTs in a very effective method, in which the dielectric and semiconductor layers are deposited onto a substrate in a one-step process.

    10. Inducement of Azimuthal Molecular Orientation of Pentacene by Imprinted Periodic Groove Patterns for Organic Thin-Film Transistors (pages 1146–1153)

      Sung Jin Jo, Chang Su Kim, Min Jung Lee, Jong Bok Kim, Seung Yoon Ryu, Joo Hyon Noh, Kyuwook Ihm, Hong Koo Baik and Youn Sang Kim

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701076

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      A new strategy for control of the in-plane orientation of pentacene is introduced using nanometer-scale periodic groove patterns as an alignment layer. Compared to pentacene films that are not aligned, an enhanced field effect mobility of 1.67 cm2 V−1 s−1 has been achieved when the optimal π-orbital overlap direction is parallel to the direction of the current flow.

    11. Random Circuit Breaker Network Model for Unipolar Resistance Switching (pages 1154–1159)

      Seung Chul Chae, Jae Sung Lee, Sejin Kim, Shin Buhm Lee, Seo Hyoung Chang, Chunli Liu, Byungnam Kahng, Hyunjung Shin, Dong-Wook Kim, Chang Uk Jung, Sunae Seo, Myoung-Jae Lee and Tae Won Noh

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702024

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      The random circuit breaker network model is proposed for unipolar resistance switching behavior. This model describes reversible dynamic processes involving two quasi-metastable states. The formation and rupture of conducting channels (see figure) in the polycrystalline TiO2 thin films may be analyzed by the self organized avalanche process in the random circuit breaker network model.

    12. Tin-Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Elastic Hollow Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Anode Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries (pages 1160–1165)

      Wei-Ming Zhang, Jin-Song Hu, Yu-Guo Guo, Shu-Fa Zheng, Liang-Shu Zhong, Wei-Guo Song and Li-Jun Wan

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701364

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      A new approach was designed to synthesize tin-nanoparticles encapsulated in elastic hollow carbon spheres (TNHCs) with uniform size, in which tin nanoparticles with a diameter <100 nm were encapsulated in one thin hollow carbon sphere. The content of tin is up to over 70% by weight, andthe void volume inside the TNHCsis as high as 70–80%, which can accommodate the volume after expansion. This tin-based nanocomposite exhibits a great potential as an anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    13. Surface Gradient of Functional Heparin (pages 1166–1169)

      David E. Robinson, Andrew Marson, Robert D. Short, David J. Buttle, Anthony J. Day, Kristina L. Parry, Michelle Wiles, Peter Highfield, Anita Mistry and Jason D. Whittle

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702586

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A gradient of functional heparin is fabricated onto a surface chemical gradient of plasma-polymerized allyl amine (see figure). While heparin functionality changes across the gradient, increased adsorption of heparin onto the surface is not accompanied with a continued, corresponding rise in heparin function.

    14. Ferromagnetism in ZnO Nanowires Derived from Electro-deposition on AAO Template and Subsequent Oxidation (pages 1170–1174)

      J. B. Yi, H. Pan, J. Y. Lin, J. Ding, Y. P. Feng, S. Thongmee, T. Liu, H. Gong and L. Wang

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702387

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      ZnO wires are prepared from the oxidation of Zn wires, which are electrodeposited into AAO template. The ZnO wires show ferromagnetism at room temperature. A detailed study indicates that, owing to incomplete oxidation, Zn clusters embedded in the ZnO matrix may attribute to the room-temperature ferromagnetism.

    15. Solid-State Conversion of Processable 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) Containing Poly(arylsilane) Precursors to π-Conjugated Conducting Polymers (pages 1175–1178)

      Jayesh G. Bokria, Arvind Kumar, Venkataramanan Seshadri, Arlene Tran and Gregory A. Sotzing

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The thermal degradation products of poly(methyl meth acrylate) model compounds in an ambient atmosphere were mapped via high-resolution electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap time of flight (Q-ToF) mass spectro metry.

    16. Fabrication of 3D-Periodic Ordered Metallic Nanoparticles in a Block Copolymer Bulk Matrix via Oscillating Shear Flow (pages 1179–1184)

      Cesar Mendoza, Torsten Pietsch, Nabil Gindy and Amir Fahmi

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702077

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      3D periodic ordered metallic-nanostructure-based hybrid materials with alignment on the micrometer scale are fabricated. Self-assembly of diblock copolymers, combined with inorganic components synthesized in situ, guides the inorganic materials into local polydomain nanostructures. Subsequently, through application of external mechanical shear, the spatial arrangement and periodicity of the nanostructures is extended into macroscopically ordered domains.

    17. Ordering Transitions in Thermotropic Liquid Crystals Induced by the Interfacial Assembly and Enzymatic Processing of Oligopeptide Amphiphiles (pages 1185–1190)

      Joon-Seo Park and Nicholas L. Abbott

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702012

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      A method leading to the preparation of oligopeptide-decorated interfaces of liquid crystals is presented. The formation of the oligopeptide-modified interface of the liquid crystal is accompanied by an orientational transition of the liquid crystal, and thus can be visually followed. Processing of the oligopeptide by an enzyme also results in an orientational transition.

    18. LED to LEC Transition Behavior in Polymer Light-Emitting Devices (pages 1191–1193)

      Yan Shao, Guillermo C. Bazan and Alan J. Heeger

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702325

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      LED to LEC transition behavior is demonstrated in polymer hybrid light-emitting devices. By utilizing both mobile ions in the polymer layer and a low-work-function cathode for electron injection, we observe and investigate the transition from LED to LEC behavior. These hybrid light-emitting devices demonstrate fast turn-on, low operating voltage, high brightness, and long operating lifetime.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: LED to LEC Transition Behavior in Polymer Light-Emitting Devices

      Vol. 20, Issue 8, Version of Record online: 29 APR 2008

    19. Ultrathin Wear-Resistant Ionic Liquid Films for Novel MEMS/NEMS Applications (pages 1194–1198)

      Manuel Palacio and Bharat Bhushan

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702006

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      Two ionic liquids, BMIM-PF6 and BMIM-OctSO4, are applied on Si (100) and investigated for the first time using atomic force microscopy (AFM). These liquids exhibit comparable adhesion, friction and wear characteristics relative to the perfluoropolyether lubricant Z-TETRAOL. By configuring the AFM as a nano-Kelvin probe, surface potential maps of the coated surfaces are obtained after wear testing.

    20. Nanolayered Carbon/Silica Superstructures via Organosilane Assembly (pages 1199–1204)

      Huisheng Peng, Yuntian Zhu, Dean E. Peterson and Yunfeng Lu

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701303

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      Nanolayered carbon/silica superstructures with tunable morphologies (tubes, fibers, or spheres) and sizes (micro-sized or macroscopic) were synthesized by self-assembly of perylenedidimide-bridged silsesquioxane through an easy sol-gel process followed by carbonization. The derived nanocomposite materials show interesting electrical properties, i.e., the conductivity increases exponentially with temperature.

    21. Controlled Synthesis of Self-Assembled Metal Oxide Hollow Spheres Via Tuning Redox Potentials: Versatile Nanostructured Cobalt Oxides (pages 1205–1209)

      Chun-Hu Chen, Shams F. Abbas, Aimee Morey, Shanthakumar Sithambaram, Lin-Ping Xu, Hector F. Garces, William A. Hines and Steven L. Suib

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702180

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A general method to produce self-assembled metal oxides with hollow structures is developed by controlling the net redox potentials. Nanostructured CoOOH and CeO2 hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by this method. The synthesized CoOOH hollow spheres are versatile precursors for nanomaterials of cobalt oxide derivatives (eg. Co3O4, LiCoO2), and also possess excellent catalytic activity.

  4. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    6. Index
    1. Nanoporous Plasmonic Metamaterials (pages 1211–1217)

      Juergen Biener, Gregory W. Nyce, Andrea M. Hodge, Monika M. Biener, Alex V. Hamza and Stefan A. Maier

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701899

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      The development of nanoporous metallic materials for photonic and plasmonic applications has recently attracted much interest. This Research News article summarizes recent advances in the synthesis of nonperiodic nanoporous metal foams which can be prepared in the form of very uniform millimeter-sized 3D objects. Synthesis techniques include top-down (dealloying) and bottom-up strategies (templating and filter casting) as well as combinations thereof (see figure).

    2. Reactive Templates: Doing Chemistry with Pore Walls (pages 1218–1221)

      Lili Zhao, Martin Steinhart, Ulrich Gösele and Sabine Schlecht

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702376

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      The use of porous templates as inert, shape-defining molds is a well-established methodology for the preparation of one-dimensional nanostructures and microstructures. However, the rational exploitation of the intrinsic reactivity of porous templates is largely unexplored. Recent results suggest that this emerging strategy may pave the way for new syntheses routes to wires and tubes made of complex materials that cannot be formed into one-dimensional structures otherwise.

  5. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Research News
    6. Index

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