Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 8

April 21, 2008

Volume 20, Issue 8

Pages 1397–1584

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Cover Picture: Reversible Conductance Switching in Molecular Devices (Adv. Mater. 8/2008)

      Auke J. Kronemeijer, Hylke B. Akkerman, Tibor Kudernac, Bart J. van Wees, Ben L. Feringa, Paul W. M. Blom and Bert de Boer

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890025

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover shows a photograph of molecular junctions as processed on a wafer being irradiated with a green laser to optically switch the single molecular layer of photochromic diarylethenes sandwiched between two electrodes. Bert de Boer and co-workers report on p.1467 that these reliable and reproducible solid-state molecular electronic devices, which show bidirectional conductance switching of molecular origin, can be produced using conventional processing techniques.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Inside Front Cover: Patterned Growth and Transfer of ZnO Micro and Nanocrystals with Size and Location Control (Adv. Mater. 8/2008)

      Jesse J. Cole, Xinyu Wang, Robert J. Knuesel and Heiko O. Jacobs

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890026

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Selective growth of ZnO at the interface between oxidized GaN and a photoresist using low-temperature hydrothermal growth is reported on p. 1474 by Heiko Jacobs and co-workers. Oxygen plasma treatment and a patterned photoresist are used to fabricate tailored ZnO micro and nanocrystals at precise substrate locations. The ability to tailor the microcrystal dimensions and attachment areas allows the ZnO to be detached and transferred to a flexible substrate (bottom left).

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Contents: (Adv. Mater. 8/2008) (pages 1397–1405)

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890027

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Reversibility of the Perovskite-to-Fluorite Phase Transformation in Lead-Based Thin and Ultrathin Films (pages 1407–1411)

      Geoff L. Brennecka, Chad M. Parish, Bruce A. Tuttle, Luke N. Brewer and Mark A. Rodriguez

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702442

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      As film thicknesses decrease below 50 nm, control of cation stoichiometry in Pb-based dielectrics becomes increasingly difficult, a problem that is exacerbated by interaction with technologically important Pt bottom electrodes. Post-crystallization annealing in a Pb-rich atmosphere is shown to be a general technique to reversibly convert low-permittivity Pb-deficient fluorite into ferroelectric high-permittivity stoichiometric perovskite with outstanding dielectric properties (see figure).

    2. Multiplex Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Using Functionalized Quantum Rods (pages 1412–1417)

      Ken-Tye Yong, Indrajit Roy, Haridas E. Pudavar, Earl J. Bergey, Kenneth M. Tramposch, Mark T. Swihart and Paras N. Prasad

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702462

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A technique for labeling of live human cancer cells is presented. The imaging technique employs semiconductor quantum rods of CdSe/CdS/ZnS for multiplex labeling. The technique is further used to diagnose human pancreatic cancer by conjugating QRs with monoclonal antibodies (anti-Claudin 4 and anti-mesothelin).

    3. Electrically Programmable Surfaces for Configurable Patterning of Cells (pages 1418–1423)

      Chao Yung Fan, Yi-Chung Tung, Shuichi Takayama, Edgar Meyhöfer and Katsuo Kurabayashi

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702191

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      A microfluidic device surface coated with block copolymer and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein layers (see Figure) shows electrical programmability for cell immobilization. The surface has demonstrated the ability to pattern C2C12 murine myoblasts cells with their morphology and surface density adjustable by varying the applied electrode bias.

    4. The Effect of an Active Substrate on Nanoparticle-Enhanced Fluorescence (pages 1424–1428)

      Shy-Hauh Guo, Shu-Ju Tsai, Hung-Chih Kan, De-Hao Tsai, Michael R. Zachariah and Raymond J. Phaneuf

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701126

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      Proximity of fluorescent molecules to noble metal nanoparticles leads to a strong enhancement of the fluorescent intensity during irradiation with light, a consequence of resonant coupling to localized particle plasmons. In this communication we show that the substrate can have a profound effect on this simple picture, not merely shifting the resonance, but actively reshaping the local fields, and resulting in even larger enhancements.

    5. Al-Doped TiO2 Films with Ultralow Leakage Currents for Next Generation DRAM Capacitors (pages 1429–1435)

      Seong Keun Kim, Gyu-Jin Choi, Sang Young Lee, Minha Seo, Sang Woon Lee, Jeong Hwan Han, Hyo-Shin Ahn, Seungwu Han and Cheol Seong Hwang

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701085

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      Al-doped TiO2 thin films to be used in future DRAM capacitors with excellent leakage properties as well as high dielectric constants are fabricated. The next generation stack structured DRAM cell composed of a transistor and a capacitor is shown (see Figure). A large cell capacitance is required for successful operation of DRAMs irrespective of the feature size of the cell. Therefore, as scaling down of the DRAMs proceeds, a higher-k material such as Al-doped TiO2 has to be eventually implemented in the capacitor.

    6. Specific Self-Assembly of Single Lipid Vesicles in Nanoplasmonic Apertures in Gold (pages 1436–1442)

      Andreas B. Dahlin, Magnus P. Jonsson and Fredrik Höök

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701697

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      A combination of material-specific surface chemistry, sequence-specific DNA hybridization, and size exclusion on the nanometer scale can be combined for high-precision self-assembly of lipid vesicles (see figure) to localized surface-plasmon-resonance-active nanoholes in thin Au films on SiO2.

    7. A Catalytic Reaction Inside a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (pages 1443–1449)

      Hidetsugu Shiozawa, Thomas Pichler, Alexander Grüneis, Rudolf Pfeiffer, Hans Kuzmany, Zheng Liu, Kazu Suenaga and Hiromichi Kataura

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701466

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      A catalytic reaction inside a single-walled carbon nanotube is demonstrated by using encapsulated ferrocene molecules as precursors. A combined spectroscopic and microscopic study unravels the mechanism of catalytic inner tube growth. This confined process provides for the controlled iron growing of double-walled carbon nanotubes and represents a new route for materials design.

    8. CNFs@CNTs: Superior Carbon for Electrochemical Energy Storage (pages 1450–1455)

      Jian Zhang, Yong-Sheng Hu, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Gisela Weinberg, Joachim Maier, Robert Schlögl and Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701685

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      Carbon-nanotube-encapsulated carbon nanofibers (CNFs@CNTs) with a novel one-dimensional structure are synthesized via the selective assembly of CNFs inside the channels of CNTs (see figure). The resulting novel carbon hybrid material serves as stable anode in lithium batteries during 120 charge/discharge cycles. This work provides a simple and efficient way of converting conventional CNTs into functional carbon materials with an outstandingly high volumetric storage density.

    9. LiF as an n-Dopant in Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum Thin Films (pages 1456–1461)

      Kaushik Roy Choudhury, Jong-hyuk Yoon and Franky So

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701657

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Facile non-alkaline n-doping of Alq3with LiF is achieved by co-evaporation. Optimal doping not only leads to enhanced device currents and conductivity, but also changes the very nature of carrier injection and transport. Using this scheme, efficient electron injection is achieved without using low-work-function cathodes. A doped transport layer (see figure) inOL EDs leads to balanced injection andtransport of charge carriers and resultsin excellent device performance.

    10. Responsive Assemblies: Gold Nanoparticles with Mixed Ligands in Microphase Separated Block Copolymers (pages 1462–1466)

      Qifang Li, Jinbo He, Elizabeth Glogowski, Xuefa Li, Jin Wang, Todd Emrick and Thomas P. Russell

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple method for controlling the spatial distribution of nanoparticles in a diblock copolymer is shown. By varying the ligand functionality of the nanoparticles, as well as the processing conditions, the distribution of gold nanoparticles in the microdomains of the diblock copolymer was controlled and altered. In addition, the nanoparticlesare found to affect the diblock copolymer morphologies. Thermal treatment caused a redistribution of the nanoparticles inside one microdomain.

    11. Reversible Conductance Switching in Molecular Devices (pages 1467–1473)

      Auke J. Kronemeijer, Hylke B. Akkerman, Tibor Kudernac, Bart J. van Wees, Ben L. Feringa, Paul W. M. Blom and Bert de Boer

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800053

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A reliable and reproducible solid-state molecular electronic device that shows bidirectional conductance switching of molecular origin is demonstrated. The devices are manufactured by conventional processing techniques and are based on a molecular monolayer of photochromic diarylethenes, sandwiched between two electrodes, which switches reversibly and in situ between two conductance states via optical addressing.

  5. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Patterned Growth and Transfer of ZnO Micro and Nanocrystals with Size and Location Control (pages 1474–1478)

      Jesse J. Cole, Xinyu Wang, Robert J. Knuesel and Heiko O. Jacobs

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703102

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method to fabricate and transfer crystalline ZnO with control over location, orientation, size, and shape is reported. The process uses an oxygen plasma treatment in combination with a photoresist pattern on magnesium-doped GaN substrates to define narrow nucleation regions and attachment points with 100 nanometer scale dimensions. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth follows nucleation to produce single-crystalline ZnO shown in the figure.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. High-Moment Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles with Tunable Magnetic Properties (pages 1479–1483)

      Wei Hu, Robert J. Wilson, AiLeen Koh, Aihua Fu, Anthony Z. Faranesh, Christopher M. Earhart, Sebastian J. Osterfeld, Shu-Jen Han, Liang Xu, Samira Guccione, Robert Sinclair and Shan X. Wang

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703077

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      Synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) nanoparticles are fabricated by a combination of nanoimprint lithography and ferromagne tic multilayer structures, followed by release and stabilization of nanoparticles in solution. The SAF nanoparticles have desirable magnetic properties with respect to multiplex magnetic labeling and sorting, and can be functionalized with fluorescent dyes.

    2. Shear-Induced Organization in Flexible Polymer Opals (pages 1484–1487)

      Otto L. J. Pursiainen, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Holger Winkler, Benjamin Viel, Peter Spahn and Tilmann Ruhl

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701363

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Shear-induced organization in flexible polymer opals is studied using probing UV-surface diffraction combined with band gap measurements. These opals consist of a coherently ordered “super domain” characterized by a radial director vector and show anisotropic photonic behavior depending on the relative vectorial orientation of strain and director.

    3. Surface Nanopatterning to Control Cell Growth (pages 1488–1492)

      Ludovic Richert, Fiorenzo Vetrone, Ji-Hyun Yi, Sylvia Francis Zalzal, James D. Wuest, Federico Rosei and Antonio Nanci

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701428

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      Nanotopographical surfaces are a promising solution to modulate cell responses at the tissue/implant interface. Roughness and porosity at the nanometer scale can have a discriminatory effect by allowing a particular cell type to flourish (e.g., osteogenic cells; see figure) while limiting growth of another (e.g., fibroblastic cells).

    4. Visible-Light Photocatalysis in Titania-Based Mesoporous Thin Films (pages 1493–1498)

      Saurabh S. Soni, Mark J. Henderson, Jean-François Bardeau and Alain Gibaud

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701066

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      Photocatalytic activity in the visible part of the solar spectrum (442 nm) is demonstrated for highly organized mesoporous nanocrystalline titania thin films doped with thiourea. This property, which is of interest for the further development of photovoltaic devices operating in sunlight, is revealed by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue (see figure) upon contact with an N-doped TiO2 film as a function of irradiation time and film thickness.

    5. Vapor–Solid–Solid Growth Mechanism Driven by Epitaxial Match between Solid AuZn Alloy Catalyst Particles and ZnO Nanowires at Low Temperatures (pages 1499–1504)

      Leonardo C. Campos, Matteo Tonezzer, Andre S. Ferlauto, Vincenzo Grillo, Rogério Magalhães-Paniago, Sergio Oliveira, Luiz O. Ladeira and Rodrigo G. Lacerda

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701612

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      A comprehensive explanation for the precise mechanism of ZnO nanowire growth at low temperatures (T < 400 °C) is presented. Experimental data and theoretical considerations evidence that ZnO nanowires originate from solid γ-AuZn catalyst particles. A model is proposed to describe such growth. An original feature of the model concerns the formation of nanowire, which occurs via preferential oxidation of specific γ-AuZn surfaces induced by epitaxial-like growth mechanism.

  7. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Transparent, Low-Electric-Resistance Nanocomposites of Self-Assembled Block Copolymers and SWNTs (pages 1505–1510)

      Jinwoo Sung, Pil Sung Jo, Hyein Shin, June Huh, Byung Gil Min, Dong Ha Kim and Cheolmin Park

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701535

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      A transparent PS-b-P4VP copolymer/SWNTs nanocomposite film is used as both source and drain electrode in a pentacene OTFT with transmittance and electricresistance values of 85% and 6000 Ω/□, respectively. The low electric resistance of the film is achieved by the selective doping of HAuCl4 in P4VP cores of the self-assembled block copolymer micelles, which simultaneously provides sufficientstability for the SWNTs suspension.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. High-Performance Air-Stable Bipolar Field-Effect Transistors of Organic Single-Crystalline Ribbons with an Air-Gap Dielectric (pages 1511–1515)

      Qingxin Tang, Yanhong Tong, Hongxiang Li, Zhuoyu Ji, Liqiang Li, Wenping Hu, Yunqi Liu and Daoben Zhu

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702145

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      High-performance bipolar OFETs are fabricated using single-crystalline sub-micrometer-sized ribbons of CuPc and F16CuPc and the technique of an air-gap dielectric. Their similar energy levels to the work function of the Au electrodes, the high mobility of their single crystals, and the great advantages of the air-gap dielectric result in a high performance of the bipolar devices. The devices show excellent air-stable characteristics with electron and hole mobilities as high as 0.17 and 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively.

    2. Nanoporous Carbon Films from “Hairy” Polyacrylonitrile-Grafted Colloidal Silica Nanoparticles (pages 1516–1522)

      Chuanbing Tang, Lindsay Bombalski, Michal Kruk, Mietek Jaroniec, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski and Tomasz Kowalewski

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701115

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      Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is grafted from colloidalr silica nanoparticles by atom transfer radical polymerization (see figure). Atomic force microscopy of these inorganic/organic hybrids confirms their well-defined, “hairy” structure. Carbonization of the PAN corona and subsequent etching away of silica nanoparticle cores affords thin films of nanoporous carbon, which exhibit a narrow pore size distribution and a relatively high specific surface area in the range of 200–450 m2 g−1.

    3. A Nanoreactor Framework of a Au@SiO2 Yolk/Shell Structure for Catalytic Reduction of p-Nitrophenol (pages 1523–1528)

      Joongoo Lee, Ji Chan Park and Hyunjoon Song

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702338

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      A nanoreactor system comprising gold cores and silica hollow shells with empty inner space demonstrated. The Au@SiO2 yolk/shell nanoreactor is synthesized by selective etching of the gold cores in Au@SiO2 core/shell particles (see figure). This nanoreactor framework catalyzes the reduction of p-nitrophenol, exhibiting interesting size-dependent reaction property.

    4. Protein-Modified Porous Silicon Nanostructures (pages 1529–1533)

      Luca De Stefano, Ilaria Rea, Paola Giardina, Annunziata Armenante and Ivo Rendina

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702454

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      Biological passivation of porous silicon (PSi)-based optical devices is demonstrated. Infiltration by small amphiphilic fungal proteins called HFBs changes the wettability of the PSi surface (see figure) and protects the sponge-like structure against dissolution by basic solutions. This protein membrane leaves the sensing ability of an optical transducer unchanged, adding chemical stability that can be the key in biomolecular experiments.

    5. Néel Temperature Enhancement by Increasing the In-plane Magnetic Correlation in Layered Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Materials (pages 1534–1538)

      Yan-Zhen Zheng, Wei Xue, Shao-Liang Zheng, Ming-Liang Tong and Xiao-Ming Chen

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702356

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      Three inorganic-organic hybrid compounds are hydrothermally synthesized by controlling the conformation of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate and related ligands, which have different infinite inorganic Mn[BOND]O layers with an interesting effect of the in-plane magnetic correlation on the Néel temperature.

    6. Highly Conductive, Methanol Resistant Polyelectrolyte Multilayers (pages 1539–1543)

      Avni A. Argun, J. Nathan Ashcraft and Paula T. Hammond

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703205

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      Highly conducting, methanol resistant thin films are fabricated using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. Pairing a sulfonated aromatic polyether with amine-based polycations yields LBL films with ionic conductivity values up to 3.5 × 10−2 S cm−1. Uniformly coating traditional fuel cell membranes with these LBL films (see figure) improves the power output of a direct methanol fuel cell by over 50%.

    7. Bimetallic Nanocobs: Decorating Silver Nanowires with Gold Nanoparticles (pages 1544–1549)

      Ray Gunawidjaja, Sergiy Peleshanko, Hyunhyub Ko and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703170

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hybrid bimetallic nanocobs, comprising a silver nanowire core surrounded by a gold nanoparticle shell linked together by a star polymer with terminal functional groups, revealed a greatly enhanced SERS ability. The SERS enhancement exceeded Raman scattering from isolated silver nanowires by about two orders of magnitude. Effective plasmon excitation provides a broad absorption band for SERS activation, which is also directionally dependent, making the nanocobs promising candidates for arrayed microstructures.

    8. Chemical Vapor Growth of One-dimensional Magnetite Nanostructures (pages 1550–1554)

      Sanjay Mathur, Sven Barth, Ulf Werner, Francisco Hernandez-Ramirez and Albert Romano-Rodriguez

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701448

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      One-dimensional nanoscopic Fe3O4 architectures are grown by molecule-based chemical vapor deposition CVD using [Fe(OBut)3]2 precursor and Au particles as growth templates. Growth of magnetite shell on tin oxide nanowires is also achieved, obtaining magnetic–semiconductor heterostructures. Structural characterization of the different nanostructures and the first electrical measurements on an individual magnetite nanowire are reported.

    9. Sea Urchin Tooth Design: An “All-Calcite” Polycrystalline Reinforced Fiber Composite for Grinding Rocks (pages 1555–1559)

      Yurong Ma, Sidney R. Cohen, Lia Addadi and Steve Weiner

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702842

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      A convenient tooth. Here we investigate how the different kinds of calcite crystals in a sea urchin tooth (left) work together as an effective grinding tool. The polycrystalline matrix has a higher elastic modulus and hardness than the single crystals, yet both work together to produce a flat grinding surface (right).

    10. Aerogel Templated ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1560–1564)

      Thomas W. Hamann, Alex B. F. Martinson, Jeffrey W. Elam, Michael J. Pellin and Joseph T. Hupp

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702781

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      Atomic layer deposition is employed to conformally coat low density, high surface area aerogel films with ZnO. The ZnO/aerogel membranes are incorporated as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells, which exhibit excellent power efficiencies of up to 2.4% under 100 mW cm−2 light intensity.

  9. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Highly Efficient White Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Nanometer-Scale Control of the Electron Injection Layer Morphology through Solvent Processing (pages 1565–1570)

      Yong Zhang, Fei Huang, Yun Chi and Alex K.-Y. Jen

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701988

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly efficient white polymer light-emitting diodes (WPLEDs) are demonstrated using neutral conjugated polymer surfactant PFN-OH as the electron-injection layer through solution processing. The electroluminescence spectra and luminance efficiency are strongly dependent on the morphology of the PFN-OH films. The dramatic improvement of device performance is attributed to the efficient hole-blocking ability due to mixed solvent-induced PFN-OH chain aggregation.

    2. Gold-Induced Self-Assembly of Germanium Micropatterns and Their Use as Nanowire Templates (pages 1571–1575)

      Ji Wu and Jeffery L. Coffer

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701826

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      In the search for non-lithographic methods for pattern formation on semiconductor surfaces, a facile self-assembly method relying on Au-assisted thermal annealing is employed to obtain rectangular and square micro-patterns on single crystal Ge surfaces. Such patterns can be exploited for the templated growth of biomaterials such as the valerite phase of calcium carbonate.

  10. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Silicon Photovoltaics Using Conducting Photonic Crystal Back-Reflectors (pages 1577–1582)

      Paul G. O'Brien, Nazir P. Kherani, Alongkarn Chutinan, Geoffrey A. Ozin, Sajeev John and Stefan Zukotynski

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702219

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      One potential approach to enhance light trapping in thin photovoltaic (PV) cells is to structure the back-reflector in the form of a photonic crystal (PC). This Research News article describes the underlying physical mechanisms that give rise to absorption enhancements in thin silicon wafers featuring PC back-reflectors and describes the hurdles that have to be surmounted in order to reduce-to-practice a PC back-reflector into an actual PV device.

  11. Index

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. Author Index and Subject Index Adv. Mater. 8/2008 (pages 1583–1584)

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890028

  12. Corrections

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Communication
    7. Communications
    8. Communication
    9. Communications
    10. Communication
    11. Research News
    12. Index
    13. Corrections
    1. You have free access to this content
      Quantum-Dot-Activated Luminescent Carbon Nanotubes via a Nano Scale Surface Functionalization for in vivo Imaging

      Donglu Shi, Yan Guo, Zhongyun Dong, Jie Lian, Wei Wang, Guokui Liu, Lumin Wang and Rodney C. Ewing

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890031

      This article corrects:
    2. You have free access to this content
      LED to LEC Transition Behavior in Polymer Light-Emitting Devices

      Yan Shao, Guillermo C. Bazan and Alan J. Heeger

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200890032

      This article corrects:

      LED to LEC Transition Behavior in Polymer Light-Emitting Devices1

      Vol. 20, Issue 6, 1191–1193, Article first published online: 29 FEB 2008

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